物理化学学报 >> 2008, Vol. 24 >> Issue (07): 1143-1148.doi: 10.1016/S1872-1508(08)60049-2

研究论文 上一篇    下一篇

活性炭电极材料的表面改性和性能

刘亚菲; 胡中华; 许琨; 郑祥伟; 高强   

  1. 同济大学化学系, 上海 200092
  • 收稿日期:2008-01-14 修回日期:2008-03-19 发布日期:2008-07-04
  • 通讯作者: 胡中华 E-mail:huzh@mail.tongji.edu.cn

Surface Modification and Performance of Activated Carbon Electrode Material

LIU Ya-Fei; HU Zhong-Hua; XU Kun; ZHENG Xiang-Wei; GAO Qiang   

  1. Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, P. R. China
  • Received:2008-01-14 Revised:2008-03-19 Published:2008-07-04
  • Contact: HU Zhong-Hua E-mail:huzh@mail.tongji.edu.cn

摘要: 以硝酸、双氧水、氨水三种化学试剂分别对活性炭进行表面改性, 用N2吸附法和FTIR表征炭材料改性前后孔结构和表面官能团的变化. 制备了以改性活性炭为电极材料, KOH溶液为电解质的模拟双电层电容器. 用恒流充放电、循环伏安、交流阻抗等方法考察了双电层电容器的电化学性能. 结果表明, 改性活性炭比表面积和平均孔径有所降低, 并且在炭材料表面引入了含氧或含氮官能团, 如—OH、>CO、—NH2等, 使炭材料的润湿性增强、电阻减小、电化学性能显著提高. 用65%硝酸改性后炭材料的比容量最高达到250 F·g-1, 比原样炭提高了72.4%; 实验电容器的漏电流急剧下降, 只有3-18 μA, 为原来电容器的漏电流(371 μA)的0.8%-4.9%.

关键词: 活性炭, 双电层电容器, 表面改性, 电极材料, 比电容

Abstract: A commercial activated carbon was modified by surface treatment using three chemicals, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonia, respectively. The modified carbons were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption is otherms and FTIR spectroscopy. The resultant carbon electrode-based electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) were assembled with 6 mol·L-1 KOH as the electrolyte. The influence of surface modification on the performance of EDLCs was studied by galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry, and alternating current impedance. The surface modification resulted in no big decrease in specific surface area and little decrease in average pore size, and introduced functional groups, such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, and amidogen, on the carbon surface. These functional groups significantly improved the wettability and reduced the resistance of the activated carbon. As a result, the specific capacitance of the carbon modified with 65%HNO3 reached 250 F·g-1, 72.4% higher than that of original carbon. The leakage current of testing EDLCs decreased unexpectedly to 3-18 μA, only 0.8%-4.9% that of the original carbon electrode-based EDLC (371 μA).

Key words: Activated carbon, Electric double-layer capacitor, Surface modification, Electrode material, Specific capacitance

MSC2000: 

  • O649