物理化学学报 >> 2012, Vol. 28 >> Issue (01): 111-120.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201228111

电化学和新能源 上一篇    下一篇

从2AlCl3/Et3NHCl离子液体中电沉积制备Ni 和Ni-Al 合金

高丽霞1,2, 王丽娜1, 齐涛1, 余江2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院过程工程研究所, 湿法冶金清洁生产技术国家工程实验室, 北京 100190;
    2. 北京化工大学化学工程学院, 环境科学与工程系, 北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2011-08-12 修回日期:2011-10-15 发布日期:2011-12-29
  • 通讯作者: 齐涛, 余江 E-mail:tqgreen@mail.ipe.ac.cn; jyu0017@yahoo.com.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(973) (2007CB613501), 中国科学院知识创新项目(082814), 国家自然科学基金(21076019), 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(ZY1130)及中国博士后科学基金项目(2011M500224)资助

Preparation of Ni and Ni-Al Alloys from 2AlCl3/Et3NHCl Ionic Liquid by Electrodeposition

GAO Li-Xia1,2, WANG Li-Na1, QI Tao1, YU Jiang2   

  1. 1. National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P. R. China;
    2. College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, P. R. China
  • Received:2011-08-12 Revised:2011-10-15 Published:2011-12-29
  • Contact: QI Tao, YU Jiang E-mail:tqgreen@mail.ipe.ac.cn; jyu0017@yahoo.com.cn
  • Supported by:

    The project was supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973) (2007CB613501), Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (082814), National Natural Science Foundation of China (21076019), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (ZY1130), and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project (2011M500224).

摘要: 在含Ni2+的2AlCl3/Et3NHCl离子液体中的铜电极上通过恒电位电沉积制备出金属Ni 和Ni-Al 合金. 采用循环伏安和计时电流方法, 揭示铜电极上沉积金属Ni 的成核机理, 研究了电沉积Ni-Al 合金的机理, 以及恒电位沉积Ni-Al 合金工艺条件对沉积Ni-Al 合金表面形貌和电流效率的影响. 结果表明: 在铜电极上电沉积金属Ni的成核机理为受扩散控制的三维瞬时成核过程. 在电量≥3.0 C 时, 电沉积Ni-Al 合金的组成基本不再变化.Ni-Al 合金的电沉积机理为, Ni 的电沉积受扩散控制, 同时进行Al 的欠电位沉积, 在Ni-Al 合金电沉积过程中某些Ni-Al 合金相的沉积可能受动力学限制而使Ni-Al 合金的组成偏离热力学预测结果. 在电沉积Ni-Al 合金的沉积电流小且平稳, 电沉积速率慢条件下, Ni-Al 合金表面形貌致密均一, 反之就会出现瘤节. 电沉积Ni-Al 合金的电流效率>90%. 电沉积物的组成接近于Ni3Al 合金.

关键词: 离子液体, AlCl3/Et3NHCl, 恒电位, 电沉积, 镍铝合金

Abstract: Nickel and nickel-aluminum alloy were successfully electrodeposited on Cu electrodes from 2: 1 molar ratio aluminum chloride (AlCl3)/triethylamine hydrochloride (Et3NHCl) ionic liquids containing Ni2+ by constant potential electrolysis. The nucleation mechanism of nickel electrodeposition on Cu was investigated by cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometry. The mechanism and the influence of experimental conditions on the current efficiency and the surface morphology of nickel-aluminum alloy electrodeposition on Cu electrodes were studied. The electrodeposition of nickel on Cu electrodes was controlled by three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth. The Ni-Al alloy composition did not become independent of the deposition charge until at least 3.0 C had been accumulated. The mechanism of Ni-Al alloy formation appears to involve the underpotential deposition of aluminum on the developing nickel deposit and alloy formation must be kinetically hindered because the aluminum content is always less than that predicted from theoretical considerations. The Ni-Al alloy that was obtained on the Cu electrode was dense, continuous, and well adherent when the deposition current was small and stationary. If these conditions were not met, a nodule surface morphology appeared. The current efficiency of the Ni-Al alloy electrodeposition was greater than 90% and the deposition composition was close to that of the Ni3Al alloy.

Key words: Ionic liquid, Aluminum chloride/Triethylamine hydrochloride, Constant potential, Electrodeposition, Nickel-aluminum alloy

MSC2000: 

  • O646