物理化学学报 >> 2015, Vol. 31 >> Issue (11): 2099-2108.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201510081

电化学和新能源 上一篇    下一篇

静电纺丝法制备交联多孔纳米碳纤维膜及其电化学电容性能

卢建建,应宗荣(),刘信东,赵双生   

  • 收稿日期:2015-05-19 发布日期:2015-11-13

Preparation of Cross-Linked Porous Carbon Nanofiber Networks by Electrospinning Method and Their Electrochemical Capacitive Behaviors

Jian-Jian. LU,Zong-Rong. YING(),Xin-Dong. LIU,Shuang-Sheng. ZHAO   

  • Received:2015-05-19 Published:2015-11-13

摘要:

以聚丙烯腈(PAN)和三聚氰胺为原料,通过静电纺丝法制备了三聚氰胺改性聚丙烯腈纳米纤维前驱体,经预氧化、碳化后得到交联的多孔纳米碳纤维.采用红外光谱(FTIR)仪、热重分析(TGA)仪、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、X射线衍射(XRD)仪、拉曼光谱仪和比表面积分析仪等对前驱体及纤维进行了表征.结果表明,经过三聚氰胺改性的聚丙烯腈纳米纤维前驱体在碳化后有效地交联,形成含有微孔、介孔和大孔多级的合理孔道结构,氮掺杂量高达14.3%,纤维直径大幅缩减,平均直径仅约89 nm.电化学测试结果表明,交联多孔纳米碳纤维电极在0.05 A·g-1电流密度下未经活化时的质量比电容值高达194 F·g-1(0.05 A·g-1),在2 A·g-1的电流密度下经过1000次循环充放电后的比电容仍然保持99.2%,表现出优异的电化学特性.

关键词: 三聚氰胺, 静电纺丝, 纳米碳纤维, 交联网络, 超级电容器

Abstract:

Cross-linked porous carbon nanofiber networks were successfully prepared by electrospinning followed by preoxidation and carbonization using low-cost melamine and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as precursors. The structures and morphologies of the nanofiber networks were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption/desorption. The carbon fibers had an interconnected nanofibrous morphology with a well-developed porous structure including micropores, mesopores and macropores, high-level nitrogen doping (up to 14.3%), and a small average diameter (about 89 nm). Without activation, the carbon nanofibers had a high specific capacitance of 194 F·g-1 at a current density of 0.05 A·g-1. Cycling experiments showed that the specific capacitance retained approximately 99.2% of the initial capacitance after 1000 cycles at a current density of 2 A·g-1, indicating an excellent electrochemical performance.

Key words: Melamine, Electrospinning, Carbon nanofiber, Cross-linked network, Supercapacitor

MSC2000: 

  • O646