物理化学学报 >> 2017, Vol. 33 >> Issue (7): 1324-1337.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201704112

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金纳米棒——从可控制备与修饰到纳米生物学与生物医学应用

胡雪娇,高冠斌*(),张明曦*()   

  • 收稿日期:2017-01-03 发布日期:2017-05-31
  • 通讯作者: 高冠斌,张明曦 E-mail:gbgao@whut.edu.cn;mxzhang@whut.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:胡雪娇,1993年生。2015毕业于沈阳化工大学高分子材料与工程专业,获学士学位。2015年至今就读于武汉理工大学材料工程专业。主要研究方向为金纳米材料的制备与应用|高冠斌,1987年生。2016年毕业于武汉理工大学材料物理与化学专业,获博士学位。同年留校担任材料复合新技术国家重点实验室助理研究员。主要研究方向为智能纳米材料、生物界面材料等|张明曦,1982年生。2010年毕业于武汉大学分析化学专业,获博士学位。2010年起在武汉理工大学工作,2013年晋升副研究员。主要研究方向为纳米生物技术、仿生复合材料、生物医用材料等
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(51533007);国家自然科学基金(51521001);国家自然科学基金(21404083)

Gold Nanorods——from Controlled Synthesis and Modification to Nano-Biological and Biomedical Applications

Xue-Jiao HU,Guan-Bin GAO*(),Ming-Xi ZHANG*()   

  • Received:2017-01-03 Published:2017-05-31
  • Contact: Guan-Bin GAO,Ming-Xi ZHANG E-mail:gbgao@whut.edu.cn;mxzhang@whut.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51533007);The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51521001);The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21404083)

摘要:

金纳米棒因其独特的光学活性(纵向和横向两个等离子体共振吸收峰,可调范围从可见光区到近红外区)、长径比可调,表面易于修饰,生物相容性良好而使得其在纳米生物学和生物医学等领域具有广泛的应用前景。金纳米棒的合成及表面修饰直接决定着其物理化学性质,进而影响其生物相容性及其在生物医学中的应用。本文综述了金纳米棒的可控制备方法(包括模板法、电化学法、光化学法和晶种法)、表面可控修饰方法及其在纳米生物学和生物医学中的应用新进展,重点总结了金纳米棒的表面可控修饰及其在分子探针、生物传感、生物成像、药物载体、基因载体和光热疗法的最新研究进展。最后针对金纳米棒在生物应用过程中的一些瓶颈问题(如:特异性识别能力需要增强和荧光量子产率尚待提高等)提出了将手性分子或智能聚合物引入到金纳米棒表面进行可控修饰,以期增强其特异性识别能力并提高荧光量子产率,为金纳米棒的发展提供了新的思路。

关键词: 金纳米棒, 可控制备, 可控修饰, 纳米生物学应用, 生物医学应用

Abstract:

Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have been the focus of considerable attention in the nano-biotechnology and biomedicine fields because of their unique optical activities, adjustable aspect ratios, ease of surface modification, and good biocompatibility. AuNRs offer specific tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effects (including TSPR and LSPR), which can tune their fluorescence-emission between the visible and near-infrared (NIR) zones. Controlled synthesis and surface modification determine the physical and chemical properties of AuNRs, which ultimately determine their biocompatibility and biomedical applicability. In this review, the four main types of controlled synthesis (template, electrochemical synthesis, photochemical synthesis, and seeded growth methods), controlled surface modification methods, as well as the nano-biological and biomedical applications of AuNRs, are summarized. The controlled surface modification methods of AuNRs and their application to molecular probes, bio-sensing, bio-imaging, gene carriers, pharmaceutical carriers, and cancer photothermal therapy are discussed in detail. Finally, we outline our personal perspectives on the main issue affecting AuNRs in biological applications. That is, chiral molecular and smart polymers can be introduced onto the surfaces of AuNRs to improve the specific recognition of tumor cells and to increase fluorescence quantum yields, thus providing a new direction for the development of AuNRs.

Key words: Gold nanorods, Controlled synthesis, Controlled modification, Nano-biological applications, Biomedical applications

MSC2000: 

  • O648