物理化学学报 >> 2018, Vol. 34 >> Issue (5): 456-475.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201709211

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基于特殊润湿性材料的油水分离

李文涛1,2,雍佳乐1,3,杨青1,2,*(),陈烽1,3,*(),方瑶1,3,侯洵3   

  1. 1 西安交通大学机械制造系统工程国家重点实验室,西安710049
    2 西安交通大学机械工程学院,西安710049
    3 西安交通大学电子与信息工程学院,陕西省信息光子技术重点实验室,西安710049
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-29 发布日期:2018-01-24
  • 通讯作者: 杨青,陈烽 E-mail:yangqing@mail.xjtu.edu.cn;chenfeng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:杨青,西安交通大学副教授,博士生导师。1992年于四川大学获得光电子科学与技术学士学位,2009年于中国科学院西安光学精密机械研究所获得博士学位。目前主要从事飞秒激光精密加工、微流控生物芯片、微光子学的研究|陈烽,西安交通大学教授,博士生导师,课题组长。1991年于四川大学获得物理学学士学位。1991–2002期间工作于中国科学院,1997获得中国科学院光学博士学位,1999年晋升为教授。2002进入西安交通大学工作。目前主要从事仿生微纳加工、飞秒激光微纳加工的研究
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(51335008);国家自然科学基金(61475124);国家自然科学基金委员会与中国工程物理研究院联合基金(U1630111);国家重点研发计划(2017YFB1104700);中国博士后科学基金(2016M600786)

Oil-Water Separation Based on the Materials with Special Wettability

Wentao LI1,2,Jiale YONG1,3,Qing YANG1,2,*(),Feng CHEN1,3,*(),Yao FANG1,3,Xun HOU3   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, P. R. China
    2 School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, P. R. China
    3 School of Electronics & Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology for Information of Shaanxi Province, Xi'an 710049, P. R. China
  • Received:2017-08-29 Published:2018-01-24
  • Contact: Qing YANG,Feng CHEN E-mail:yangqing@mail.xjtu.edu.cn;chenfeng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51335008);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(61475124);the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the China Academy of Engineering Physics (NSAF)(U1630111);the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFB1104700);China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2016M600786)

摘要:

频繁发生的石油泄漏事故以及工业含油污水的违规排放不仅造成了巨大的经济损失,而且严重破坏了人类赖以生存的生态环境。为了净化被油污染的水域,研究者们近年来开始研究出了各种特殊润湿性(如超疏水或超疏油)的材料用于实现油水分离。超疏水和超疏油可以通过设计材料表面的微观几何形貌和化学分子组成来获得。通过各种微纳制备手段使材料表现出对油和水截然相反的极端润湿性,是这类材料实现油水分离的关键所在。本文首先阐述了实现油水分离的重要意义,并介绍了材料表面润湿性的相关理论基础。根据材料对水和油所表现出的不同超疏液性与超亲液性,对油水分离材料从以下三类分别介绍:(ⅰ)超疏水/超亲油材料,(ⅱ)超疏油/超亲水材料,(ⅲ)智能响应润湿性材料。对于每一类油水分离材料,本文概括了国际上近期相关的代表性研究工作,包括材料的制备方法和实现油水分离的原理和过程,以及这些材料的主要特点和应用。最后,针对基于特殊润湿性材料实现油水分离,探讨了该研究领域目前存在的主要问题和面临的挑战,并对该领域的应用前景进行了展望。

关键词: 油水分离, 超疏水, 超疏油, 智能响应, 润湿性

Abstract:

The frequency of oil-spill accidents and industrial wastewater discharges have caused severe water pollution, not only resulting in huge economic losses but also threatening the ecological system. Recently, researchers have developed different types of materials with special wettability (such as superhydrophobicity or superoleophobicity) and used them successfully for oil-water separation. Superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surfaces can generally be obtained by designing the surface geometric micro-topography and chemical composition of solid materials. Endowing porous materials with reverse super-wettability to water and oil using various microfabrication technologies is the key to separate oil-water mixtures. In this review we initially identify the significance of fabricating oil/water-separating materials and achieving effective separations. Then, the typical theoretical principles underlying surface wettability are briefly introduced. According to the difference in surface wettabilities toward water and oil, we classify the current oil-water separating materials into three categories: (ⅰ) superhydrophobic/superoleophilic materials, (ⅱ) superoleophobic/ superhydrophilic materials, and (ⅲ) smart-response materials with switchable wettability. This review summarizes the representative research work for each of these materials, including their fabrication methods, principle and process of oil-water separation, and main characteristics and applications. Finally, existing problems, challenges, and future prospects of this fast-growing field of special wettability porous materials for the separation of oil-water mixtures are discussed.

Key words: Oil-water separation, Superhydrophobicity, Superoleophobicity, Smart-response, Wettability

MSC2000: 

  • O647