物理化学学报 >> 2018, Vol. 34 >> Issue (8): 873-885.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201802062

所属专题: 绿色化学

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低共熔溶剂:一种应用在混合物分离过程中的绿色溶剂

侯玉翠1,么聪菲2,吴卫泽2,*()   

  1. 1 太原师范学院化学系,山西 晋中 030619
    2 北京化工大学化工资源有效利用国家重点实验室,北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-08 发布日期:2018-04-03
  • 通讯作者: 吴卫泽 E-mail:wzwu@mail.buct.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:Dr. WU Weize, born in 1967, obtained his bachelor at Dalian University of Technology in 1989. Then, he worked and studied at Institute of Coal Chemistry, CAS, where he received his Ph.D. In 2002, he moved to Institute of Chemistry, CAS as an associate professor. From 2004 to 2006, he worked as a Research Fellow at the University of Nottingham, UK. In 2006, he came to Beijing University of Chemical Technology, where he is currently Professor of Chemical Engineering. His research focuses on coal conversion to chemicals, biomass conversion to chemicals, purification of flue gas, applications of DESs, ILs and SCFs in separations. He has authored more than 160 peer-reviewed papers and 18 patents
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划(2011CB201303);高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金(20120010110005)

Deep Eutectic Solvents: Green Solvents for Separation Applications

Yucui HOU1,Congfei YAO2,Weize WU2,*()   

  1. 1 Department of Chemistry, Taiyuan Normal University, Jinzhong 030619, Shanxi Province, P. R. China
    2 State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, P. R. China
  • Received:2018-01-08 Published:2018-04-03
  • Contact: Weize WU E-mail:wzwu@mail.buct.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    the National Basic Research Program of China(2011CB201303);Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education(20120010110005)

摘要:

低共熔溶剂(DESs)因具有合成容易、价格低廉、环境友好、挥发性低、溶解能力强、可生物降解、结构可设计等特点,被认为是一种绿色溶剂。近年来,研究者通过深入研究低共熔溶剂的性质,结合低共熔溶剂的特点,将其替代传统的有机溶剂,在混合物分离过程中开展了大量的研究工作,包括:酸性气体(如CO2、CO2和H2S)吸收、生物活性物质萃取、燃料油品中含硫和含氮化合物的脱除、油酚混合物分离、芳烃和脂肪烃混合物的分离、醇水混合物分离、生物柴油合成过程中甘油的脱除等。本文分析了低共熔溶剂的结构、性质和特点,综述了低共熔溶剂在分离领域的最新研究成果,探讨了低共熔溶剂在混合物分离应用中存在的问题,展望了低共熔溶剂的发展趋势。

关键词: 低共熔溶剂, 混合物分离, 进展, 特性, 氢键受体, 氢键供体

Abstract:

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are regarded as a new class of green solvents because of their unique properties such as easy synthesis, low cost, environmental friendliness, low volatility, high dissolution power, high biodegradability, and feasibility of structural design. DESs have been widely applied for the separation of mixtures as alternatives to conventional solvents. A DES usually consists of a hydrogen bond donor (HBD) and a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA). HBAs include amides, thiourea, amines, imidazole, azole, alcohols, acids and phenol. HBAs include quaternary ammonium salts, quaternary phosphonium salts, imidazolium-based salts, dication based salts, inner salts, and molecular imidazole and its analogues. Therefore, there are numerous DESs available for use in different applications. With an in-depth understanding of the common and novel properties of DESs, researchers have prepared and applied DESs to various types of separations. We first introduce the composition of DESs, including various HBDs and HBAs frequently used in the literature. Second, the properties of DESs, including phase diagrams, melting points, density, viscosity, and conductivity, are summarized. Third, recent applications of DESs in the separation of mixtures are reviewed, including the absorption of acidic gases (CO2, SO2 and H2S), the extraction of bioactive compounds, extraction of sulfur-and nitrogen-containing compounds from fuel oils, extraction of phenolic compounds from oils, separation of mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic compounds, separation of alcohol and water mixtures, removal of glycerol from biodiesel, separation of alcohol and ester mixtures, removal of radioactive nuclear contaminants, and separation of isomer mixtures of benzene carboxylic acids. DESs are used in two ways for the separation of mixtures. (1) A DES prepared in advance is used as a solvent to separate a component from a mixture by selective dissolution or absorption of specific compound(s), such as the absorption of SO2 using betaine+ethylene glycol DES. Here, DESs are used like traditional solvents. (2) A DES is formed in situ during the separation of mixtures by adding a HBA to a mixture containing one or more HBDs, such as the removal of phenol from an oil mixture using choline chloride, where a phenol+choline chloride DES is formed during the separation process and the formed DES does not dissolve in the oil phase. Although various DESs have been broadly developed for the separation of mixtures, research continues in the field of DESs, including analysis of the physicochemical properties of DES, especially during extraction or absorption, development of functional DESs for high-efficiency separations, development of efficient methods to regenerate DESs, and combined use of DESs with other techniques to improve separation processes. This article describes general trends in the development of DESs for separation and evaluates the problematic or challenging aspects of DESs in the separation of mixtures.

Key words: Deep eutectic solvent, Separation of mixtures, Progress, Property, Hydrogen bond donor, Hydrogen bond acceptor

MSC2000: 

  • O645