物理化学学报 >> 2018, Vol. 34 >> Issue (11): 1202-1210.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201803271

所属专题: 庆祝李永舫院士七十华诞特刊

专论 上一篇    下一篇

基于非富勒烯受体的溶液加工型全小分子太阳能电池研究进展

何畅*(),侯剑辉*()   

  • 收稿日期:2018-02-26 发布日期:2018-04-17
  • 通讯作者: 何畅,侯剑辉 E-mail:hechang@iccas.ac.cn;hjhzlz@iccas.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:何畅,中国科学院化学研究所副研究员。2007年6月毕业于中国科学院化学研究所,获理学博士学位。长期从事溶液可加工有机光伏材料设计与器件研究工作|侯剑辉,中国科学院化学研究所研究员,博士生导师。2006年6月毕业于中国科学院化学研究所,获理学博士学位。长期从事有机光伏领域的研究,研究方向包括新型有机光伏材料的设计合成以及高效率有机光伏器件的制备技术等
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(521734008)

Advances in Solution-Processed All-Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells with Non-Fullerene Electron Acceptors

Chang HE*(),Jianhui HOU*()   

  • Received:2018-02-26 Published:2018-04-17
  • Contact: Chang HE,Jianhui HOU E-mail:hechang@iccas.ac.cn;hjhzlz@iccas.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(521734008)

摘要:

有机太阳能电池(OPV),具有质量轻、可成本低制备等优势,是一种具有实际应用潜力的光伏技术。有机太阳能电池活性层可以由共轭聚合物或溶液可加工的小分子材料(给体与受体)共混组成。由于小分子材料具有明确的分子结构,纯度可控及无批次差别影响的特点;并结合近年来非富勒烯小分子受体的快速发展,使得非富勒烯全小分子(NF-SM-OPV)电池研究受到广泛关注。由于大部分A-D-A型非富勒烯受体分子具有各向异性的特点,这使激子解离和电荷传输,很大程度上受分子间堆积方式的影响,导致非富勒烯全小分子电池活性层形貌调控更加复杂。虽然非富勒烯小分子太阳能电池具有非富勒烯受体材料和小分子材料的双重优势,但高效率非富勒烯小分子太阳能电池的制备,仍具有很大挑战。因此,本文总结近年来高性能非富勒烯小分子太阳能电池的相关进展。着重介绍针对非富勒烯受体的给体小分子材料设计工作,并在此基础上近一步讨论非富勒烯小分子太阳能电池面临的挑战与展望。

关键词: 有机太阳能电池, 溶液可加工, 非富勒烯受体, 宽带隙小分子, 本体异质结

Abstract:

Solution-processed bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ-OSCs), with their advantages of light weight, low cost, and easy fabrication, are a photovoltaic technology with practical potentials. In BHJ-OSCs, the exciton dissociation and charge transport are highly sensitive to the molecular packing pattern and phase separation morphology in the active layer. On the other hand, when using photovoltaic small molecules (SMs), the purity can be controlled due to their well-defined chemical structure, and therefore there is better reproducibility in device performance. Especially, the non-fullerene acceptors are easier to tune in their light absorption and energy level. Hence, there has been considerable interest in small non-fullerene SM organic solar cells (NF-SM-OSCs). Although these cells have the dual advantages of non-fullerene acceptor materials and SMs, the fabrication of high-efficiency cells still possess great challenges. For example, efficient photovoltaic SMs typically possess an acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure that causes intrinsic anisotropy, making it more complicated to modulate and control the morphology of the nanoscale active layer. In this article, we will summarize recent advances in high-performance NF-SM-OSCs, and present an introduction of the specific requirements for SM donors in the small NF-SM-OSCs. We first summarize our works on SM donors with the A-D-A structure. The trialkylthienyl-substituted benzodithiophene (TriBDT-T) unit is employed as the D-core unit, and the A end groups include rhodanine (RN), cyano-rhodanine (RCN), and 1, 3-indanone (IDO). The band gap (Eg) of these compounds is about 2.0 eV, with the low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of -5.51 eV. First, NF-SM-OSCs with DRTB-T and a non-fullerene acceptor (IDIC) were constructed. The morphology of the active layer was fine-tuned by solvent vapor annealing (SVA), leading to the formation of the desired interconnected nanoscale structure. Our results demonstrate that the molecular design of a wide band gap (WBG) donor to create a well-matched donor-acceptor pair with a low band gap (LBG) non-fullerene SM acceptor, as well as subtle morphological control, provides great potential to realize high-performance NFSM-OSCs. We also studied the molecular orientation optimization from the aspect of molecular design. We designed and synthesized a group of SM compounds having identical π-conjugated backbones and end groups with different alkyl chain lengths. Since these compounds have identical photoelectric properties, they allow us to focus on the significant influence of the end alkyl chains on the molecular orientation and intermolecular aggregation behavior in solid-state films. Characterization of the DRTB-T-CX films using 2D grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) revealed an obvious transition of orientation from edge-on to face-on relative to the substrate when the end alkyl chain is lengthened. This demonstrates that the length of the end alkyl chain can be used to modify the molecular orientation. A DRTB-T-C4/IT-4F-based device achieved a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 11.24%, which is the best performance reported for state-of-the-art NF-SM-OSCs. On this basis, the challenges and prospects of NF-SM-OSCs are discussed.

Key words: Organic photovoltaic cells, Solution-processible, Non-fullerene acceptor, Wide bandgap small molecule, Bulk-heterojunction

MSC2000: 

  • O646