物理化学学报 >> 2019, Vol. 35 >> Issue (6): 572-590.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201806060

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纳米碳点的制备与应用研究进展

胡超1,穆野1,李明宇2,邱介山2,3,*()   

  1. 1 西安交通大学化学工程与技术学院,西安 710049
    2 大连理工大学化工学院,辽宁省能源材料化工重点实验室,精细化工国家重点实验室,辽宁 大连 116024
    3 北京化工大学化学工程学院,北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-27 录用日期:2018-07-24 发布日期:2018-10-31
  • 通讯作者: 邱介山 E-mail:qiujs@mail.buct.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:邱介山,1964年生。1990年在大连理工大学获博士学位;国家杰出青年基金获得者,长江学者特聘教授,现任北京化工大学化学工程学院教授。研究方向为能源材料化工、煤化工和多相催化
  • 基金资助:
    中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(xjj2017083);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(zrzd2017014);国家自然科学基金(51702254);国家自然科学基金(U1710117);中国博士后科学基金(2016M602827);陕西省自然科学基础研究计划(2017JQ5027);辽宁省博士启动基金(201501173)

Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Applications of Carbon Dots

Chao HU1,Ye MU1,Mingyu LI2,Jieshan QIU2,3,*()   

  1. 1 School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, P. R. China
    2 Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning Province, P. R. China
    3 College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, P. R. China
  • Received:2018-06-27 Accepted:2018-07-24 Published:2018-10-31
  • Contact: Jieshan QIU E-mail:qiujs@mail.buct.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China(xjj2017083);The project was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China(zrzd2017014);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51702254);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(U1710117);the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2016M602827);the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shanxi Province, China(2017JQ5027);the Liaoning Province Doctoral Startup Grant(201501173)

摘要:

纳米碳点是碳纳米材料家族的新成员,近年来在国内外受到广泛关注。与传统的荧光染料和半导体量子点发光材料相比,碳点不仅具有优异的光学性能及尺寸效应,且具有制备成本低廉、生物相容性好、易于官能化、能带结构可调等优势。本文在理清有关碳点概念的基础之上,介绍了碳点结构特征和制备策略,着重综述了纳米碳点在生物成像与诊疗、传感器件、催化、光电器件和能量存储领域的最新研究进展,探讨了碳点研究目前存在的问题及未来的发展方向。

关键词: 荧光, 碳点, 生物成像, 传感, 催化, 光电器件, 能量存储

Abstract:

Carbon atoms can bond together in different molecular configurations leading to different carbon allotropes including diamond, fullerene, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphdiyne that are widely used or explored in a number of fields. Carbon dots (CDs), which are generally surface-passivated carbon nanoparticles less than 10 nm in size, are other new members of carbon allotropes. CDs were serendipitously discovered in 2004 during the electrophoresis purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Similar to their popular older cousins, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, CDs have drawn much attention in the past decade and have gradually become a rising star because of the advantages of chemical inertness, high abundance, good biocompatibility, and low toxicity. Interestingly, CDs typically display excitation-energy- and size-dependent fluorescent behavior. Depending on their structures, the fluorescence from CDs is either attributed to the quantum-confinement effect and conjugated π-domains of the carbogenic core (intrinsic states), or determined by the hybridization of the carbon skeleton and the connected chemical groups (surface states). Compared with the traditional semiconductors, quantum dots, and their organic dye counterparts, fluorescent CDs possess not only excellent optical properties and small-size effect, but also the advantages of low-cost synthesis, good photo-bleaching resistance, tunable band gaps, and surface functionalities. For these reasons, CDs are considered to be emergent nanolights for bio-imaging, sensing, and optoelectronic devices. Additionally, CDs feature abundant structural defects at their surface and edges, excellent light-harvesting capability, and photo-induced electron-transfer ability, thus facilitating their applications in photocatalysis and energy storage and conversions. To date, remarkable progress has been achieved in terms of synthetic approaches, properties, and applications of CDs. This review aims to classify the different types of CDs, based on the structures of their carbogenic cores, and to describe their structural characteristics in terms of synthesis approaches. Two well-established strategies for synthesizing CDs, the top-down and bottom-up routes, are highlighted. The diverse potential applications, in the bio-imaging and diagnosis, sensing, catalysis, optoelectronics, and energy-storage fields, of CDs with different structures and physicochemical properties, are summarized, covering the issues of surface modification, heteroatom doping, and hybrids made by combining CDs with other species such as metals, metal oxides, and biological molecules. The challenges and opportunities for the future development of CDs are also briefly outlined.

Key words: Fluorescence, Carbon dot, Bioimaging, Sensing, Catalysis, Optoelectronic device, Energy storage

MSC2000: 

  • O648