物理化学学报 >> 2020, Vol. 36 >> Issue (2): 1904056.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201904056

所属专题: 超级电容器

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静电纺纳米纤维基超级电容器无粘合剂电极材料的研究进展

田地,卢晓峰,李闱墨,李悦,王策*()   

  • 收稿日期:2019-04-12 录用日期:2019-05-16 发布日期:2019-05-30
  • 通讯作者: 王策 E-mail:cwang@jlu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:王策,1982毕业于吉林大学化学系高分子专业,获得学士学位。1995年在奥地利维也纳技术大学获得博士学位。随后在美国爵硕大学开展博士后工作。现任吉林大学化学学院麦克德尔米德实验室教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向是静电纺复合纳米纤维的制备及其在电磁屏蔽、传感、环境、能源等领域的应用
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(21875084);国家自然科学基金(51773075);吉林省科技厅(20190101013JH)

Research on Electrospun Nanofiber-Based Binder-Free Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

Di Tian,Xiaofeng Lu,Weimo Li,Yue Li,Ce Wang*()   

  • Received:2019-04-12 Accepted:2019-05-16 Published:2019-05-30
  • Contact: Ce Wang E-mail:cwang@jlu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21875084);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51773075);the Project of Science and Technology Agency, Jilin Province, China(20190101013JH)

摘要:

对高性能超级电容器不断增长的需求促进了无粘合剂电极材料的快速发展。静电纺纳米纤维由于具有良好的柔性、大比表面积、高孔隙率、容易制备等优点引起了研究者们的强烈关注。本文综述了静电纺纳米纤维基无粘合剂电极材料在超级电容器领域的研究进展,阐述了不同材料的设计制备过程和提升电化学性能的诸多方法,并指明了静电纺纳米纤维基超级电容器无粘合剂电极材料的发展机遇与挑战,为性能优异的无粘合剂超级电容器电极材料的进一步开发与应用拓宽了思路。

关键词: 超级电容器, 无粘合剂, 静电纺丝, 纳米纤维, 电极材料

Abstract:

The increased demand for high-performance supercapacitors has fueled the development of electrode materials. As an important part of supercapacitors, the electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor is directly affected by the specific surface area, conductivity, electrochemical activity, and stability of electrode materials. In the traditional manufacturing method, a binder must be added to powdered electrode materials to enhance their combination with the current collector, which could lead to morphology damage, pore blockage, and reduced conductivity of active materials that will adversely affect their electrochemical behavior. Thus, research on binder-free electrode materials has attracted significant interest. Recently, electrospun nanofibers have been widely used as supercapacitor electrode materials because of their advantages such as large specific surface area, high porosity, and easy preparation. The attainable continuity and flexibility endow electrospun nanofiber membranes outstanding performance among large numbers of binder-free materials. This review considers recent studies on electrospun nanofiber-based binder-free electrode materials for supercapacitors, including carbon nanofibers, carbon-based composite nanofibers, conductive polymer-based composite nanofibers, and metal oxide nanofibers. These studies demonstrate that pore structure construction, activation treatment, and nitrogen doping can improve the specific surface area, electrochemical activity, wettability, and graphitization degree of carbon nanofibers to enhance their electrochemical properties. Moreover, combining carbon nanofibers with metal oxides, metal sulfides, metal carbides, and conductive polymers by methods such as blending, chemical deposition, electrochemical deposition, etc., can improve their capacitance, rate performance, and cycling stabilities, which complement the advantages of different materials and proves that the performance of multicomponent materials is better than that of single-component materials. In particular, conductive polymers based on composite nanofibers and metal oxide nanofibers can be used as binder-free materials by electrospinning technology, but their dependence on other substances as well as fragile fiber membrane limit their widespread application. Therefore, in order to ensure the continuity or flexibility of fiber membranes, carbon-based composite nanofibers with multicomponent and hierarchical structure could potentially be used/constructed as binder-free electrode materials. Combinations with new types of electrode materials such as metal-organic frameworks (MOF), covalent organic frameworks (COF), MXenes, metal nitride, metal phosphide, etc., and the preparation of materials with novel structures have also been attempted. In order to realize the practical application of eletrospun nanofiber-based binder-free electrode materials, more attention should be given to improving their mechanical properties, production efficiency, and research on the application of flexible devices. We hope that this review can broaden ideas for improving the development and application of electrospun nanofiber-based binder-free electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors.

Key words: Supercapacitor, Binder-free, Electrospinning, Nanofiber, Electrode material

MSC2000: 

  • O646