物理化学学报

所属专题: 固体核磁共振

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可充电池的磁共振研究

史永超, 唐明学   

  1. 北京高压科学研究中心, 北京 100094
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-02 修回日期:2019-07-01 录用日期:2019-07-02 发布日期:2019-07-08
  • 通讯作者: 唐明学 E-mail:mingxue.tang@hpstar.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    北京高压科学研究中心顶级千人计划项目(2301-0219),国家财政部资助项目

NMR/EPR Investigation of Rechargeable Batteries

Yongchao Shi, Mingxue Tang   

  1. Center for High Pressure Science & Technology Advanced Research, Beijing 100094
  • Received:2019-05-02 Revised:2019-07-01 Accepted:2019-07-02 Published:2019-07-08
  • Contact: Tang Mingxue E-mail:mingxue.tang@hpstar.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the Top-1000 Talents Program of HPSTAR (2301-0219), under grant from Ministry of Finance of China.

摘要: 快速增长的对安全能源的需求,促使科研工作者不断探索高能量密度的可充锂离子电池(LIBs)。发展原位表征技术能更好地研究电池工作中的锂离子镶嵌机制和电池失效因素。固体核磁共振(NMR)能有效的测试短程化学环境:通过对1H、6,7Li、11B、13C、17O、19F、23Na和31P等同位素来探测电池材料的微观结构。除了魔角旋转(MAS)高分辨NMR谱图研究电池材料的精细结构之外,核磁共振还能无损地捕获、研究电池材料在充放电循环中的演化。因此,原位核磁共振NMR及成像(MRI)可拓展到电池充放电循环中的锂离子的动态演化以及锂离子浓度的时空分布信息。互为补充地,电子顺磁共振(EPR)及成像(EPRI)能有效地跟踪和捕获电极过渡金属、阴氧离子(O2n-)的氧化还原过程。这些实时捕获的动态信息能更好地指导电极材料的构效、微观设计和电池组装的改进,最终获得优异的电化学性能。

关键词: 固体核磁共振, 电子顺磁共振, 磁共振成像, 锂离子电池, 原位表征, 构效关系, 动态演化

Abstract: The fast-growing demand for safe energy storages with high power and energy density drives the continuous improvement of rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LIBs). In situ characterization is a potential way to understand the mechanism (metaphases, diffusion, kinetics, inhomogeneity etc.) of battery under operation conditions. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) is very sensitive to the local environment of 1H, 6,7Li,11B,13C, 17O, 19F, 23Na, and 31P isotopes, which are widely used in battery materials, regardless of their ordering degree. In addition to providing well-resolved spectra obtained under fast magic angle spinning (MAS), NMR can effectively serve as a non-invasive tool to capture the evolution of electrodes/electrolyte upon charge/discharge electrochemical cycling. Subsequently, in situ NMR and imaging (MRI) have been developed for extending toward temporal and spatial dimensions in working batteries. Complementarily, highly sensitive electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and imaging (EPRI) have been employed to track and map the redox of transition metals and oxygen species (O2n-) within electrodes. The insights gained from in situ NMR/EPR and their imaging can serve as a guide for the structural design of energy storage materials and the fabrication of batteries with optimized performance. As such, this review summarizes the applications of both NMR and EPR in the field of battery community. In particular, we first introduce the combination of fast magic angle spinning and phase-adjusted sideband separation (pjMATPASS) to obtain highly resolved spectra for extreme broad signal mediated by unpaired electrons, which is usually found in battery materials, as well as isotope-oriented NMR to determine the Li pathway in the composite electrolyte by the aid of 6Li replacing 7Li in their transport pathway. Secondly, we introduce the combination of NMR/MRI measurement while battery under electrochemical cycling by (1) briefly summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of home-made cells (coin cell, bag cell, and cylindrical cell) developed for in situ NMR study; (2) using different isotopes for conducting in situ NMR on batteries:7Li, 23Na, and 31P spectra; and (3) performing in situ MRI on electrolytes and electrodes with and without chemical shift information (CSI, S-ISIS, and stray-field MRI). Furthermore, in situ EPR determines and quantifies the evolution of active Li microstructure, transition metals, and oxygen species together with in situ EPRI mapping of the concentration of the paramagnetic center within a functioning battery. Finally, we point out the limitations and perspective of in situ NMR and EPR for cycling batteries in real-time. This review will provide illuminating insights on the magnetic technologies in the battery community and pave a way for carrying out NMR/EPR on functional materials.

Key words: Solid-state NMR, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Magnetic imaging, Lithium ion battery, In situ characterization, Structure-function relationship, Dynamic evolution

MSC2000: 

  • O646