物理化学学报 >> 2020, Vol. 36 >> Issue (5): 1905013.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201905013

所属专题: 钠离子储能材料和器件

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无机钠离子电池固体电解质研究进展

徐来强,李佳阳,刘城,邹国强,侯红帅,纪效波*()   

  • 收稿日期:2019-05-02 录用日期:2019-07-01 发布日期:2019-07-04
  • 通讯作者: 纪效波 E-mail:xji@csu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:纪效波,中南大学教授,国家优秀青年基金获得者,教育部青年长江学者。英国皇家化学学会会士。主要研究方向为新能源材料与能源器件
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(51622406)

Research Progress in Inorganic Solid-State Electrolytes for Sodium-Ion Batteries

Laiqiang Xu,Jiayang Li,Cheng Liu,Guoqiang Zou,Hongshuai Hou,Xiaobo Ji*()   

  • Received:2019-05-02 Accepted:2019-07-01 Published:2019-07-04
  • Contact: Xiaobo Ji E-mail:xji@csu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51622406)

摘要:

地球上钠资源储量丰富、成本低廉,使得钠电池吸引了越来越多研究者的关注。传统的基于有机溶剂电解液体系的钠电池在安全方面存在不足。固态钠离子电池能够有效解决安全的问题,增加电池的安全性能。固态钠离子电池是一种很有前景的储能方式。钠离子固体电解质主要有Na-β-Al2O3、钠超离子导体(NASICON)、硫化物、聚合物以及硼氢化物这几类。无机固体电解质相对于聚合物固体电解质,离子电导率有优势。本文总结了三种常见的无机钠离子固体电解质:Na-β-Al2O3、NASICON、硫化物的研究进展,从离子电导率和界面稳定性等方面阐述了近年来的发展。

关键词: 固态钠离子电池, 安全, 无机钠离子固体电解质, 离子电导率, 界面

Abstract:

Sodium batteries have drawn increasing attention from multiple researchers owing to the abundant reserves and low cost of sodium resources. However, traditional sodium batteries based on organic solvent electrolyte systems have safety risks. Thus, the utilization of solid electrolyte materials instead of organic electrolytes could effectively resolve safety issues and ensure the safe performance of the battery. Solid sodium-ion battery is a promising energy storage device. The sodium ion solid-state electrolytes mainly includes Na-β-Al2O3, Na super ionic conductor (NASICON), sulfide, polymer, and borohydride. Inorganic solid electrolytes have the advantage of ionic conductivity compared with polymer solid electrolyte. This paper summarizes the research progress on three common inorganic sodium ion solid electrolytes: Na-β-Al2O3, NASICON, and sulfide. Research efforts have mainly focused on increasing ionic conductivity and interface stability. Na-β-Al2O3 has been successfully commercialized in high-temperature Na-S and ZEBRA batteries with molten electrodes. Pure β″-Al2O3 is difficult to prepare owing to its low thermodynamic stability. The synthesized β″-Al2O3 based on traditional solid-state reaction generally contains impurities such as β-Al2O3 and NaAlO2 (around the boundaries). Further improvements are required to develop favorable methods for fabricating pure β″-Al2O3 with high production yield, low cost, and well-controlled microstructure. NASICON, one of the most promising ionic conductors for solid sodium-ion batteries, has attracted considerable attention for its high ionic conductivity at room temperature. The general method to enhance ionic conductivity is to increase the bottleneck size by introducing proper substituents. However, the substitution of synthetic elements could result in different optimal calcination temperatures, which would lead to a change in the density of ceramic sintering. β″-Al2O3 and NASICON have higher ionic conductivity at room temperature but cannot achieve good performance in the field of high power densities and long-term cycling owing to the poor interface contact with electrode materials. Because the high polarizability and large ionic radius of sulfur atoms weaken the interaction between skeleton and sodium ions, sulfide solid electrolytes often provide higher ionic conductivity at room temperature than analogous oxides. At the same time, sulfide solid electrolytes can be easily pressed into a mold at room temperature. However, sulfide electrolytes have low chemical stability in air because of hydrolysis by water molecules with the generation of H2S gas, which should be handled in inert gas atmosphere. In conclusion, this review discusses the recent progress in different aspects of ionic conductivity and interface stability.

Key words: Solid sodium-ion battery, Safety, Inorganic sodium ion solid electrolyte, Ionic conductivity, Interface

MSC2000: 

  • O646