物理化学学报

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纳米粒子与细胞相互作用的力学-化学偶联研究进展

展金秀1,2, 冯峰1,2, 许敏1,2, 姚立1,2, 葛茂发1,2   

  1. 1 中国科学院化学研究所, 北京分子科学国家研究中心, 分子动态与稳态结构实验室, 中国科学院分子科学科教融合卓越创新中心, 北京 100190;
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-28 修回日期:2019-07-05 录用日期:2019-07-08 发布日期:2019-07-18
  • 通讯作者: 姚立, 葛茂发 E-mail:yaoli@iccas.ac.cn;gemaofa@iccas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(21778055,21573250),国家重点研发计划(2018YFA0208800)和北京市自然科学基金(L172048)资助项目

Progress in Chemo-Mechanical Interactions between Nanoparticles and Cells

Jinxiu Zhan1,2, Feng Feng1,2, Ming Xu1,2, Li Yao1,2, Maofa Ge1,2   

  1. 1 Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P. R. China;
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
  • Received:2019-05-28 Revised:2019-07-05 Accepted:2019-07-08 Published:2019-07-18
  • Contact: Li Yao E-mail:yaoli@iccas.ac.cn;gemaofa@iccas.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21778055, 21573250), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFA0208800), and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (L172048).

摘要: 纳米粒子在生物医学和大气环境领域的广泛研究使得其生物安全性越来越受到重视。目前已经有许多研究关注纳米粒子与细胞的相互作用及细胞毒性问题。本综述从细胞力学-化学偶联的角度总结了近五年来有关纳米粒子与细胞相互作用的研究进展。首先介绍了与细胞力学-化学偶联性质相关的分子基础以及目前检测细胞机械性质的纳米技术,然后重点讨论了纳米粒子对细胞粘附、骨架、刚度和迁移性质的影响。在此基础上,进一步指出了纳米生物力学-化学偶联的挑战与展望。

关键词: 纳米粒子, 细胞, 机械信号转导, 相互作用, 力学–化学偶联

Abstract: The biosafety of nanoparticles is gaining extensive attention due to their dichotomous effects in fields of biomedicine and atmospheric chemistry. A number of studies have been carried out focusing on the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles and their interactions with cells. However, the mechanism of nanoparticle-cell interactions remains unclear. Here, we review the latest progress in the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions from a cellular chemo-mechanical perspective. Cell mechanics play an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, polarization, adhesion, and migration. An understanding of the effects of nanoparticles on cell mechanics is therefore needed in order to enhance comprehension of nanoparticle-cell interactions. Firstly, the main molecules and signal pathways related to mechanical chemistry are introduced from three perspectives:cell surface adhesion receptors, the cytoskeleton, and the nucleus. Specifically, integrins and cadherins play a critical role in sensing both the external mechanical force and the force of cell transmission. Actin and microtubules, which are two components of the cytoskeletal network, act as a bridge in mechanical conduction. The nucleus can also be mechanically stressed by the surrounding cytoskeleton through the contraction of the matrix. The nuclear envelope also plays important roles in sensing mechanical signals and in adjusting the morphology and function of the nucleus. We summarize the major nanoparticle-based tools used in the laboratory for the study of cell mechanics, which includes traction force microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers, magnetic manipulation, micropillars, and force-induced remnant magnetization spectroscopy. In addition, we discuss the effects that nanoparticles have on cell mechanics. Nanoparticles interact with the adhesion of molecules on the cell membrane surface and on cell cytoskeletal proteins, which further affects the mechanical properties involved in cell stiffness, cell adhesion, and cell migration. Overall, the general conclusions regarding the effects of nanoparticles on cell mechanics are as follows:(1) Nanoparticles can affect cell adhesion by disrupting tight and adherent junctions, and by regulating cell-extracellular matrix adhesion; (2) Nanoparticles can interact with cytoskeletal proteins (actins and tubulins) leading to structural reorganization or disruption of microtubules and F-actin; (3) Cell stiffness changes with the structural reorganization of the cytoskeleton; (4) Cell migration ability can be affected through changes in the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and the expression of cell migration-related proteins/molecules. To develop the nano-biosafety evaluation system, future studies should attempt to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with regards to nanoparticles and cell mechanics. Ultimately, further development of new methods and technologies based on nano-mechanical chemistry for diagnosis and treatment purposes are expected, given the wide application of nanomaterials in the biomedical field.

Key words: Nanoparticle, Cell, Mechanotransduction, Interaction, Mechanochemical coupling

MSC2000: 

  • O641