物理化学学报 >> 2020, Vol. 36 >> Issue (1): 1907021.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201907021

所属专题: 庆祝唐有祺院士百岁华诞特刊

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碳纳米管可控制备的过去、现在和未来

张树辰,张娜,张锦*()   

  • 收稿日期:2019-07-04 录用日期:2019-08-01 发布日期:2019-08-29
  • 通讯作者: 张锦 E-mail:jinzhang@pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张锦,北京大学教授、博士生导师,国家杰出青年基金获得者、教育部长江学者特聘教授、英国皇家化学学会会士、中组部“万人计划”创新领军人才入选者、科技部重点研发计划项目负责人。1997年获兰州大学理学博士学位,1998年至2000年在英国利兹大学从事博士后研究,2000年5月到北京大学化学与分子工程学院工作。主要从事纳米碳材料的控制制备及其拉曼光谱学研究
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(1432002);国家自然科学基金(21790052);国家自然科学基金(51720105003)

Controlled Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes: Past, Present and Future

Shuchen Zhang,Na Zhang,Jin Zhang*()   

  • Received:2019-07-04 Accepted:2019-08-01 Published:2019-08-29
  • Contact: Jin Zhang E-mail:jinzhang@pku.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(1432002);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21790052);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51720105003)

摘要:

碳纳米管独特的几何和电子结构使其具有丰富优异的性质,因此在过去的二十余年备受研究者的关注。然而,碳纳米管结构的多样性成为其从实验室走到产业化的最大阻碍,结构决定性质,制备决定未来,完善的结构控制制备技术将成为碳纳米管基础研究和产业化应用中至关重要的一环。本文首先对碳纳米管的结构进行描述,然后综述了碳纳米管的结构可控制备方法和溶液纯化分离技术,提出未来理想的碳纳米管制备之路是将碳纳米管精细结构控制方法与宏量制备技术相结合,在降低碳纳米管生产成本的同时,提高其纯度,并建立碳纳米管产品的标准。最后,展望了碳纳米管的杀手锏级应用和该领域的机遇和挑战。

关键词: 碳纳米管, 结构, 性质, 控制制备, 产业化, 杀手锏应用

Abstract:

high tensile strength, mobility, and thermal conductivity as well as clean surface. Hence, CNTs have been widely investigated for many potential applications, for example, as additives in composites and main components of integrated circuits. However, the former application widely used does not exploit their intrinsic properties, while the latter has only been demonstrated at the level of laboratory prototype devices. As the main factor determining future applications of CNTs is the ability to achieve their structure-controlled synthesis, this review first introduces a classification of CNT structures highlighting the potential difficulties associated with fine CNT structure control due to the similarities between different CNTs. Then, advances in the basic research and industrialization of CNTs in the past decades are summarized, including fine structure control, aggregation synthesis, and scale-up production. Catalysts are crucial for controlling the structure of CNTs, as their lifetime determines the CNT length and size (wall number and diameter), while their state and formation affects CNT chirality. Moreover, as the microscopic properties of individual CNTs often differ from their macroscale performance at industrial-scale production, their aggregation state should be carefully taken into consideration. Therefore, several methods were developed to realize different types of aggregates, such as lattice orientation for obtaining horizontally aligned CNT arrays, the use of catalysts with high density for the synthesis of vertical CNT arrays, direct deposition of CNT films, and even fabrication of very complex three-dimensional (3D) macrostructures. Furthermore, many efforts have been invested to promote CNT industrialization and develop various techniques to increase CNT production, including the fluidized bed method and floating method. Finally, the ideal synthesis of CNTs should combine structure control with scale-up preparation. To this aim, further theoretical understanding of the detailed CNT growth mechanism is still needed to clarify, for example, how CNT caps form at the atomic scale, which is the close matching relationship between CNTs and catalysts, and how the growth model affects the chirality preference of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Experimentally, different methods to grow SWNTs with a uniform structure should be further developed, focusing on catalyst design to increase temperature tolerance and achieve epitaxial growth of SWNT segments. On the other hand, the large-scale synthesis of SWNTs should also be reconsidered, for instance, by improving the growth equipment. In order to identify suitable applications for different CNT products, standards should be established and adopted. In addition to improving CNT synthesis, the driving force of the CNT industry in the future will be finding disruptive applications of CNTs, whose functions and contributions are irreplaceable. In conclusion, still much progress is needed to achieve the complete commercialization of CNTs in the future. Nevertheless, the rapid development and continuous attention given to this field may lead to growth opportunities in the CNT industry.

Key words: Carbon nanotubes, Structure, Properties, Controlled synthesis, Industrialization, Killer application

MSC2000: 

  • O649