物理化学学报 >> 2022, Vol. 38 >> Issue (3): 1912061.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201912061

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高锂离子电导的有机-无机复合电解质的渗流结构设计

虞鑫润1,2, 马君2,*(), 牟春博1, 崔光磊2,*()   

  1. 1 青岛大学材料科学与工程学院,山东 青岛 266071
    2 中国科学院青岛生物能源与过程研究所,青岛市储能产业技术研究院,山东 青岛 266101
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-25 录用日期:2020-01-15 发布日期:2020-03-10
  • 通讯作者: 马君,崔光磊 E-mail:majun@qibebt.ac.cn;cuigl@qibebt.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:崔光磊,中国科学院青岛生物能源与过程研究所研究员,博士生导师,山东省泰山学者特聘专家, 国家自然科学杰出青年基金获得者。主要从事低成本高效能源储存与转换器件的研究
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(51625204)

Percolation Structure Design of Organic-inorganic Composite Electrolyte with High Lithium-Ion Conductivity

Xinrun Yu1,2, Jun Ma2,*(), Chunbo Mou1, Guanglei Cui2,*()   

  1. 1 College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, Shandong Province, China
    2 Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao Industrial Energy Storage Technology Institute, Qingdao 266101, Shandong Province, China
  • Received:2019-12-25 Accepted:2020-01-15 Published:2020-03-10
  • Contact: Jun Ma,Guanglei Cui E-mail:majun@qibebt.ac.cn;cuigl@qibebt.ac.cn
  • About author:Email: cuigl@qibebt.ac.cn (G.C.)
    Email: majun@qibebt.ac.cn (J.M.)
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51625204)

摘要:

固态聚合物电解质被认为是解决传统液态锂金属电池安全隐患和循环性能的关键材料,但仍然存在离子电导率低,界面兼容性差等问题。近年来,基于无机填料与聚合物电解质的高锂离子电导的有机-无机复合电解质备受关注。根据渗流理论,有机-无机界面被认为是复合电解质离子电导率改善的主要原因。因此,设计与优化有机-无机渗流界面对提高复合电解质离子电导率具有重要意义。本文从渗流结构的设计出发,综述了不同维度结构的无机填料用于高锂离子电导的有机-无机复合电解质的研究进展,并对比分析了不同渗流结构的优缺点。基于上述评述,展望了有机-无机复合电解质的未来发展趋势和方向。

关键词: 无机纳米填料, 聚合物电解质, 复合电解质, 高锂离子电导

Abstract:

With the increasing demand for safe high energy density energy storage systems, solid-state lithium metal batteries have attracted extensive attention. The solid electrolyte, which is expected to replace the traditional liquid organic electrolyte core in solid-state lithium metal batteries because of its excellent mechanical properties and non-flammability. Lithium-ion solid-state electrolytes can be categorized into two broad types: inorganic electrolytes and polymer electrolytes. Inorganic solid electrolytes have the advantages of high room-temperature ionic conductivity, wide electrochemical window, and high mechanical strength. However, their high brittleness, high solid-solid interface contact resistance, complex preparation process, and high cost make future development and practical applications challenging. In contrast to inorganic electrolytes, polymer electrolytes are easy to process and exhibit better flexibility and easy formation of a good, stable interface with lithium metal. However, solid polymer electrolytes still exhibit insufficient ionic conductivity at room temperatures compared with polymer solid electrolytes. Therefore, neither the inorganic electrolytes nor the polymer electrolytes alone can meet the requirements of high-performance solid-state lithium metal batteries. Recently, dispersing ceramic fillers (especially fast lithium-ion conductors) in a polymer matrix to integrate with composite polymer electrolytes has been developed as an effective strategy for enhancing room-temperature ionic conductivity, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of solid polymer electrolytes. Inorganic fillers do not only reduce the polymer matrix crystallization but also improve the lithium-ion conductivity by promoting the dissociation of lithium salts. The Lewis acid-base groups and oxygen vacancy at the surface of inorganic fillers can increase the migration number of lithium ions. Nevertheless, the effect of the percolation structure of inorganic fillers on the conductivity of organic-inorganic composite electrolytes should be discussed. It is believed that the organic-inorganic interface is the main reason for the significantly enhanced lithium-ion conductivity of composite electrolytes based on the percolation theory. In this paper, from the perspective of percolation structure design, we summarize the progress on high lithium-ion conductive organic-inorganic composite electrolytes with different dimensional-structured inorganic fillers. From one-dimensional filler to three-dimensional filler, the ionic conductivity of a composite electrolyte can be significantly influenced by the rational design and optimization of the percolation structure and orientation of the inorganic filler. Vertically aligned inorganic fillers provide optimal ion transport pathways in the polymer matrix, significantly improving the lithium-ion conductivity of the composite electrolytes. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of the different percolation structures are compared and discussed objectively. Finally, future development trends of organic-inorganic composite electrolytes are discussed.

Key words: Inorganic nano-filler, Polymer electrolyte, Composite electrolyte, High lithium-ion conductivity

MSC2000: 

  • O646