物理化学学报 >> 2020, Vol. 36 >> Issue (12): 2007066.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB202007066

所属专题: 神经界面

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基于碳纳米材料的神经电极技术

刘杨1, 段小洁1,2,*()   

  1. 1 北京大学工学院生物医学工程系,北京 100871
    2 北京大学前沿交叉学科研究院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-25 录用日期:2020-08-23 发布日期:2020-08-27
  • 通讯作者: 段小洁 E-mail:xjduan@pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:段小洁,1980年生。本科毕业于兰州大学,在北京大学获得博士学位。现为北京大学工学院生物医学工程系研究员。主要研究方向为新型神经电极技术的研发及应用
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(21972005);国家自然科学基金(91648207);国家自然科学基金(81771821);国家重点研发计划(2016YFA0200103);北京石墨烯产业培育项目(Z191100000819001)

Carbon-based Nanomaterials for Neural Electrode Technology

Yang Liu1, Xiaojie Duan1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2 Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2020-07-25 Accepted:2020-08-23 Published:2020-08-27
  • Contact: Xiaojie Duan E-mail:xjduan@pku.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21972005);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(91648207);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(81771821);the National Key Basic Research Program of China(2016YFA0200103);the Beijing Graphene Innovation Program(Z191100000819001)

摘要:

神经电极技术是监测和调控神经活动的重要手段,在基础神经科学研究和神经系统疾病诊疗方面有着广泛的应用。这项技术的关键在于神经电极与生物组织之间形成高效而且稳定的神经界面,从而实现高分辨、安全且长期稳定的神经记录和刺激。碳纳米材料因其优异的电学、力学和化学性质被用于构筑神经界面,形成了多种基于石墨烯和碳纳米管的神经电极及其阵列,包括可以改善界面稳定性从而获得长期稳定电学记录的柔性深度电极、可以实现电生理测量和光学刺激/成像联用的透明电极阵列、以及与磁共振成像高度兼容的神经电极等。本文将综述近年来基于石墨烯和碳纳米管的神经电极技术的发展及应用,并对纳米碳基神经电极的未来发展方向进行展望。

关键词: 神经接口, 石墨烯, 碳纳米管, 柔性电子学, 多模态神经界面, 微电极探针, 脑活动记录, 神经调控

Abstract:

As a powerful tool for monitoring and modulating neural activities, implantable neural electrodes constitute the basis for a wide range of applications, including fundamental studies of brain circuits and functions, treatment of various neurological diseases, and realization of brain-machine interfaces. However, conventional neural electrodes have the issue of mechanical mismatch with soft neural tissues, which can result in tissue inflammation and gliosis, thus causing degradation of function over chronic implantation. Furthermore, implantable neural electrodes, especially depth electrodes, can only carry out limited data sampling within predefined anatomical regions, making it challenging to perform large-area brain mapping. With excellent electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties, carbon-based nanomaterials, including graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have been used as materials of implantable neural electrodes in recent years. Electrodes made from graphene and CNT fibers exhibit low electrochemical impedance, benefiting from the porous microstructure of the fibers. This enables a much smaller size of neural electrode. Together with the low Young's modulus of the fibers, this small size results in very soft electrodes. Soft neural electrodes made from graphene and CNT fibers show a much-reduced inflammatory response and enable stable chronic in vivo action potential recording for 4-5 months. Combining different modalities of neural interfacing, including electrophysiological measurement, optical imaging/stimulation, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could leverage the spatial and temporal resolution advantages of different techniques, thus providing new insights into how neural circuits process information. Transparent neural electrode arrays made from graphene or CNTs enable simultaneous calcium imaging through the transparent electrodes, from which concurrent electrical recording is taken, thus providing complementary cellular information in addition to high-temporal-resolution electrical recording. Transparent neural electrodes from carbon-based nanomaterials can record well-defined neuronal response signals with negligible light-induced artifacts from cortical surfaces under optogenetic stimulation. Graphene and CNT-based materials were used to fabricate MRI-compatible neural electrodes with negligible artifacts under high field MRI. Simultaneous deep brain stimulation (DBS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with graphene fiber electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinsonian rats revealed robust blood oxygenation level dependent responses along the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in a frequency-dependent manner, with responses from some regions not previously detectable. This review introduces the recent development and application of neural electrode technologies based on graphene and CNTs. We also discuss biological safety issues and challenges faced by neural electrodes made from carbon nanomaterials. The use of carbon-based nanomaterials for the fabrication of various soft and multi-modality compatible neural electrodes will provide a powerful platform for both fundamental and translational neuroscience research.

Key words: Neural interfacing, Graphene, Carbon nanotube, Flexible electronics, Multimodal neural interface, Microelectrode probe, Brain activity mapping, Neuromodulation

MSC2000: 

  • O646