物理化学学报

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钠离子电池阵列化负极材料的研究进展

陈瑶1, 董浩洋1, 李园园2, 刘金平1   

  1. 1 武汉理工大学化学化工与生命科学学院, 材料复合新技术国家重点实验室, 武汉 430070;
    2 华中科技大学光学与电子信息学院, 武汉 430074
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-26 修回日期:2020-08-18 录用日期:2020-08-18 发布日期:2020-08-24
  • 通讯作者: 李园园, 刘金平 E-mail:liyynano@hust.edu.cn;liujp@whut.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(51972257, 51872104, 51672205)和国家重点研发计划(2016YFA0202602)资助项目

Recent Advances in 3D Array Anode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries

Yao Chen1, Haoyang Dong1, Yuanyuan Li2, Jinping Liu1   

  1. 1 School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China;
    2 School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
  • Received:2020-07-26 Revised:2020-08-18 Accepted:2020-08-18 Published:2020-08-24
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51972257, 51872104, 51672205) and the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFA0202602).

摘要: 钠离子电池具有钠资源储量丰富、成本低以及安全系数高等优点,在大规模储能、新能源汽车和柔性/可穿戴电子领域中显示出巨大的潜力。然而,钠离子较大的离子半径会造成电极电化学反应动力学缓慢、材料体积变化大等问题,因此开发有利于钠离子嵌入/脱出、稳定性强和容量高的电极材料至关重要。相比于传统的粉末涂覆电极,无粘结剂的三维阵列电极在形成连续的电子传输通道、促进电解液渗透和缩短离子扩散路径等方面更具优势。本文综述了单质、过渡金属氧化物、硫化物、磷化物和钛酸盐等阵列负极材料在钠离子电池中的最新研究进展。重点介绍了各类阵列负极的制备方法、结构/形貌特点和储钠性能,最后对钠离子电池阵列化电极未来的机遇和挑战进行了展望。

关键词: 钠离子电池, 负极, 无粘结剂, 阵列电极, 柔性电子器件, 可穿戴电子器件

Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have achieved tremendous success in the fields of portable mobile devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale energy storage owing to their high working voltage, high energy density, and long-term lifespan. However, lithium-ion batteries are ultimately unable to satisfy increasing industrial demands due to the shortage and rising cost of lithium resources. Sodium is another alkali metal that has similar physical and chemical properties to those of lithium, but is more abundant. Therefore, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are promising candidates for next-generation energy storage devices. Nevertheless, SIBs generally exhibit inferior electrochemical reaction kinetics, cycling performance, and energy density to those of lithium-ion batteries owing to the larger ion radius and higher standard potential of Na+ compared to those of Li+. To address these issues, significant effort has been made toward developing electrode materials with large sodiation/desodiation channels, robust structural stability, and high theoretical capacity. As electrode performance is closely related to its architecture, constructing an advanced electrode structure is crucial for achieving high-performance SIBs. Conventional electrodes are generally prepared by mixing a slurry of active materials, conductive carbon, and binders, followed by casting on a metal current collector. Electrodes prepared this way are subject to shape deformation, causing the active materials to easily peel off the current collector during charge/discharge processes. This leads to rapid capacity decay and short cycle life. Moreover, binders and other additives increase the weight and volume of the electrodes, which reduces the overall energy density of the batteries. Therefore, binder-free, three-dimensional (3D) array electrodes with satisfactory electronic conductivity and low ion-path tortuosity have been proposed. In addition to solving the aforementioned issues, this type of electrode significantly reduces contact resistance through the strong adhesion between the array and the substrate. Furthermore, electrolyte infiltration is greatly facilitated by the abundant interspacing between individual nanostructures, which promotes fast electron transport and shortens ion diffusion, thus enabling the electrode reaction. The array structure can also readily accommodate substantial volume variations that occur during repeated sodiation/desodiation processes and release the generated stress. Therefore, it is of great interest to explore binder-free array electrodes for sodium-ion storage applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in various 3D array anode materials for SIBs, including elemental anodes, transition metal oxides, sulfides, phosphides, and titanates. The preparation methods, structure/morphology characteristics, and electrochemical performance of various array anodes are discussed, and future opportunities and challenges from employing array electrodes in SIBs are proposed.

Key words: Sodium-ion battery, Anode, Binder-free, Array electrode, Flexible electronics, Wearable electronics

MSC2000: 

  • O646