物理化学学报

所属专题: 金属锂负极

最新录用 上一篇    下一篇

多空间尺度下的金属锂负极表征技术

潘弘毅1,2, 李泉1, 禹习谦1,2, 李泓1,2   

  1. 1 中国科学院物理研究所, 北京 100190;
    2 中国科学院大学物理科学学院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-31 修回日期:2020-09-24 录用日期:2020-09-25 发布日期:2020-10-16
  • 通讯作者: 禹习谦 E-mail:xyu@iphy.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFB0100100)和北京市科技计划(Z191100004719001)资助项目

Characterization Techniques for Lithium Metal Anodes at Multiple Spatial Scales

Hongyi Pan1,2, Quan Li1, Xiqian Yu1,2, Hong Li1,2   

  1. 1 Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China;
    2 School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-08-31 Revised:2020-09-24 Accepted:2020-09-25 Published:2020-10-16
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFB0100100) and the Science and Technology Planning Project of Beijing, China (Z191100004719001).

摘要: 金属锂因为其优秀的特性被认为是未来锂电池负极的最终之选。然而目前金属锂负极在旧有液态体系中的研究陷入瓶颈,在新兴固态体系中的挑战层出不穷。想要实现金属锂负极的实用化,必须加深对金属锂负极基础科学问题的认识。本文系统论述了多空间尺度下金属锂的电极行为与对应的表征技术。首先综述了多空间尺度下金属锂负极的基础科学和应用技术问题,结合近年来的工作,对全空间尺度下的先进表征手段做了梳理,分析了从原子级到宏观尺度各种表征手段的技术特点,并重点讨论了各类表征技术在研究固态体系中金属锂负极时的特点与可能的发展方向。

关键词: 锂电池, 金属锂负极, 电沉积, 表征技术, 空间尺度

Abstract: Conventional lithium-ion batteries with graphite anode have gradually ceased satisfying demand for the rapid development of modern electric commodities, such as portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. Therefore, metallic lithium is considered the ultimate alternative anode material for future high-energy-density lithium batteries because of its excellent properties, including the highest theoretical capacity and lowest potential of available materials as well as its low density. However, research on lithium metal anodes in traditional liquid batteries has encountered impediments. Numerous studies have shown that lithium dendrites, dead lithium, solid electrolyte interphase problems, and the correlating safety hazards are the main hindrances to the practical application of liquid-based lithium metal batteries. For solid-state batteries, the challenges of lithium metal anodes continue to grow. Studies on the mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrochemical stability of solid-state electrolyte and lithium metal anode indicate that, unlike early recognition, solid-state lithium metal batteries remain far from commercialization. Unexpected issues like lithium growth along crystal boundaries, mixed-conductivity interphase generation, and interfacial contact losses have emerged that complicate the solid-state lithium metal battery. To achieve practically applicable lithium metal anodes, it is necessary to deepen our understanding of the basic scientific issues. This review systematically discusses the electrode behaviors of lithium metal and the corresponding electrode characterization techniques at multiple spatial scales. First, the basic science and technology issues of lithium metal anodes at different scales are reviewed. Lithium electrodeposition behaviors from the atomic to the macroscale are divided into ion transportation, deposition, nucleation, crystallization, expansion and growth. Various issues are also categorized among different characteristic scales. Second, advanced characterization techniques for all spatial scales are reviewed in light of recent works. Finally, the technical characteristics of various characterization techniques from the atomic to macroscale are analyzed. Features and possible directions of improvement of various characterization techniques used to examine lithium metal anodes in solid-state batteries are highlighted. In situ observation has become a common requirement for battery characterization as it can connect macroscale phenomena to microscale mechanisms. Meanwhile, non-damaging detection techniques have faced growing demand because of the urgent need to understand the complete actual reactions at the bulk and interfaces of solid-state electrolytes and lithium anodes. The combination of techniques for different scales should provide comprehensive information to characterize lithium metal anodes and identify reasonable mechanisms for their behaviors.

Key words: Lithium battery, Lithium metal anode, Electrodeposition, Characterization technique, Spatial scale

MSC2000: 

  • O646