物理化学学报

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锂-空气电池的实用化之路:规避二氧化碳负面效应

王天杰1, 王耀伟1,2, 陈宇辉1, 刘建鹏2, 史会兵2, 郭丽敏3, 赵志伟4, 刘春太5, 彭章泉4,6   

  1. 1 南京工业大学能源科学与工程学院, 材料化学工程国家重点实验室, 江苏 南京 211816;
    2 山东京博石化有限公司, 山东 博兴 256500;
    3 大连交通大学环境与化工学院, 辽宁 大连 116028;
    4 中国科学院大连化学物理研究所, 谱学电化学与锂离子电池实验室, 辽宁 大连 116023;
    5 郑州大学材料科学与工程学院, 材料成型及模具技术教育部重点实验室, 河南 郑州 450002;
    6 五邑大学应用物理与材料学院, 广东 江门 529020
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-21 修回日期:2020-10-15 录用日期:2020-10-16 发布日期:2020-10-22
  • 通讯作者: 陈宇辉, 郭丽敏, 彭章泉 E-mail:cheny@njtech.edu.cn;lmguo@ciac.ac.cn;zqpeng@dicp.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFB0100100,2018YFB0104400),国家自然科学基金(21972055,21825202,21575135,21733012,51773092,21975124,21972133),英国皇家学会牛顿基金(NAF/R2/180603)资助项目

Toward Practical Lithium-Air Batteries by Avoiding Negative Effects of CO2

Tianjie Wang1, Yaowei Wang1,2, Yuhui Chen1, Jianpeng Liu2, Huibing Shi2, Limin Guo3, Zhiwei Zhao4, Chuntai Liu5, Zhangquan Peng4,6   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, School of Energy Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, Jiangsu Province, China;
    2 Shandong Chambroad Petrochemicals Co., Ltd., Boxing 256500, Shandong Province, China;
    3 College of Environment & Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028, Liaoning Province, China;
    4 Laboratory of Spectro-electrochemistry and Li-ion Batteries, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning Province, China;
    5 College of Materials Science and Engineering, the Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Processing & Mold of Ministry of Education, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, China;
    6 School of Applied Physics and Materials, Wuyi University, Jiangmen 529020, Guangdong Province, China
  • Received:2020-09-21 Revised:2020-10-15 Accepted:2020-10-16 Published:2020-10-22
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFB0100100, 2018YFB0104400), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21972055, 21825202, 21575135, 21733012, 51773092, 21975124, 21972133) and the Newton Advanced Fellowships of Royal Society of England (NAF/R2/180603).

摘要: 与其他的锂电池体系相比,锂-空气电池具有最高的理论比能量,被认为有潜力成为终极能量转换和储存装置。目前的锂-空气电池常常使用气体钢瓶提供纯氧气,而非空气中的氧气,这种电池设计极大降低了锂-空气电池的能量密度和实用性。然而,当空气作为锂-空气电池的氧气供给源时,二氧化碳作为杂质会引起严重的副反应,从而降低锂-空气电池的性能。要解决二氧化碳引起的副反应,理解其反应机制至关重要。本文综述了锂-空气电池中有关二氧化碳诱发的化学/电化学反应的研究进展;总结了可缓解二氧化碳负面效应的有效策略。此外,对二氧化碳选透膜材料和分离技术用于锂-空气电池进行了展望。

关键词: 锂-空气电池, 反应机制, 二氧化碳分离

Abstract: The gradual popularization of new energy technologies has led to rapid development in the field of electric transportation. At present, the demand for high-power density batteries is increasing and next-generation higher-energy battery chemistries aimed at replacing current lithium-ion batteries are emerging. The lithium-air batteries (LABs) are thought to be the ultimate energy conversion and storage system, because of their highest theoretical specific energy compared with other known battery systems. Current LABs are operated with pure O2 provided by weighty O2 cylinders instead of the breathing air, and this configuration would greatly undermine LAB's energy density and practicality. However, when the breathing air is used as O2 feed for LABs, CO2, as an inevitable impurity therein, usually leads to severe parasitic reactions and can easily deteriorate the performance of LABs. Specifically, Li2O2 will react with CO2 to form Li2CO3 on the cathode surface. Compared with the desired discharge product Li2O2, the Li2CO3 is an insulating solid, which will accumulate and finally passivate the electrode surface leading to the "sudden death" phenomenon of LABs. Moreover, Li2CO3 is hard to decompose and a high overpotential is required to charge LABs containing Li2CO3 compounds, which not only degrades energy efficiency but also decomposes other battery components (e.g., cathode materials and electrolytes). In recent years, researchers have proposed many strategies to alleviate the negative effects brought about by Li2CO3, such as catalyst engineering, electrolyte design, and so on, in which O2 selective permeable membranes are worth noting. This review summarizes the recent progresses on the understanding of the CO2-related chemistry and electrochemistry in LABs and describes the various strategies to mitigate and even avoid the negative effects of CO2. The perspective of CO2 separation technology using selective permeable membranes/filters in the context of LABs is also discussed.

Key words: Lithium-air battery, Reaction mechanism, CO2 separation

MSC2000: 

  • O649