物理化学学报

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石墨烯作为硫载体在锂硫电池中的研究进展

张梦迪, 陈蓓, 吴明铂   

  1. 重质油国家重点实验室, 中国石油大学(华东)新能源学院, 化学工程学院, 山东 青岛 266580
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-04 修回日期:2021-01-26 录用日期:2021-01-27 发布日期:2021-02-08
  • 通讯作者: 吴明铂 E-mail:wumb@upc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(22005341),山东省自然科学基金(ZR2018ZC1458,ZR2020QB128),兖矿集团科技项目(YKKJ2019AJ08JG-R63),泰山学者计划(ts201712020)及中组部万人计划科技创新领军人才(W03020508)资助

Research Progress in Graphene as Sulfur Hosts in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

Mengdi Zhang, Bei Chen, Mingbo Wu   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, College of New Energy, College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, 266580, Shandong Province, China
  • Received:2021-01-04 Revised:2021-01-26 Accepted:2021-01-27 Published:2021-02-08
  • Contact: Mingbo Wu E-mail:wumb@upc.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (22005341), the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (ZR2018ZC1458, ZR2020QB128), the YanKuang Group Co., Ltd. Technology Project (YKKJ2019AJ08JG-R63), the Taishan Scholar Project (ts201712020), and the Technological Leading Scholar of 10000 Talent Project (W03020508).

摘要: 锂硫电池因其超高的理论能量密度以及硫资源丰富、成本低廉、无毒的优点,被认为是极具发展潜力与应用前景的新一代储能设备。然而,硫正极导电性差、体积膨胀以及穿梭效应严重等问题严重制约了其商业化应用。石墨烯具有高比表面积、高导电性和高柔韧性,并且易于进行表面化学修饰及组装,是一种理想的硫载体材料。本文主要综述了近年来三维石墨烯、表面化学修饰的石墨烯、石墨烯基复合材料以及石墨烯基柔性材料在锂硫电池正极中的研究现状,并展望了石墨烯作为硫载体在锂硫电池正极中的发展趋势。

关键词: 锂硫电池, 硫载体, 石墨烯, 石墨烯基复合材料, 柔性正极

Abstract: Lithium-sulfur batteries are considered to be one of the most promising new-generation energy storage devices, owing to their ultra-high theoretical energy density and the merits of sulfur cathodes, which include natural abundance, low cost, and no toxicity. However, the commercial application of lithium-sulfur batteries is still subject to various intractable challenges. First, the insulation of sulfur and its solid discharge products (Li2S2/Li2S) leads to low utilization of the active materials. Second, the cathode suffers from an 80% volume expansion after the discharge process, which adversely affects its structural stability., intermediary lithium polysulfides can easily dissolve into the electrolyte, which can trigger the "shuttle effect." This results in the loss of active materials, fast capacity fading, and low Coulombic efficiency. Graphene has garnered significant interest as a host material to accommodate sulfur for high-performance lithium-sulfur battery. A graphene host featuring a high specific surface area, excellent conductivity, and excellent mechanical stability can ensure a good electrical contact between the sulfur species and the current collector and withstand the volumetric strain of the electrode during cycling. Unfortunately, lithium polysulfides are still prone to escape from cathodes owing to the open two-dimensional (2D) plane structure of graphene sheets. To address this issue, various graphene-based materials with unique structures and chemical compositions have been trialed as sulfur hosts. In this review, we summarize research progress regarding three-dimensional (3D) graphene, graphene with modified surface chemistry, graphene-based composites, and graphene-based flexible materials as sulfur hosts for lithium-sulfur batteries. Furthermore, we analyze the challenges of applying graphene host materials in high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. This review is mainly divided into four parts:(1) 3D graphene materials as sulfur hosts:the interconnected 3D porous network structure assembled from 2D graphene sheets provides a half-enclosed cavity to accommodate sulfur and its discharge products, which can inhibit the diffusion of lithium polysulfides to a certain extent. (2) Graphene materials with modified surface chemistry as sulfur hosts:hydrophilic surface functional groups and doped non-metal or metal heteroatoms on graphene can chemically adsorb polar lithium polysulfides. (3) Graphene-based composites as sulfur hosts:in various graphene-based composites, graphene usually functions as a conductive and flexible substrate. Other components, such as other types of carbon or metal compounds, can play an important role in restricting lithium polysulfides and propelling their reaction kinetics. (4) Flexible graphene-sulfur electrodes:the excellent flexibility and conductivity of graphene endowed it and its composites with a broad range of prospective applications regarding flexible lithium-sulfur batteries.

Key words: Lithium-sulfur battery, Sulfur host, Graphene, Graphene-based composite, Flexible cathode

MSC2000: 

  • O646