物理化学学报

所属专题: 烯碳纤维与智能织物

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蚕丝基智能纤维及织物:潜力、现状与未来展望

张勇, 陆浩杰, 梁晓平, 张明超, 梁华润, 张莹莹   

  1. 清华大学化学系, 有机光电子与分子工程教育部重点实验室, 北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-16 修回日期:2021-04-03 录用日期:2021-04-06 发布日期:2021-04-12
  • 通讯作者: 张莹莹 E-mail:yingyingzhang@tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(21975141)和中国博士后科学基金(2020M680547)资助项目

Silk Materials for Intelligent Fibers and Textiles: Potential, Progress and Future Perspective

Yong Zhang, Haojie Lu, Xiaoping Liang, Mingchao Zhang, Huarun Liang, Yingying Zhang   

  1. Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2021-03-16 Revised:2021-04-03 Accepted:2021-04-06 Published:2021-04-12
  • Contact: Yingying Zhang E-mail:yingyingzhang@tsinghua.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21975141) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2020M680547).

摘要: 纤维及织物因具有良好的柔性、透气性以及适宜的力学性能而成为人们日常生活必不可少的材料。随着柔性电子器件的快速发展,纤维及织物在其自身优势的基础上,开始被人们赋予智能化特征,使得智能纤维和织物逐渐在可穿戴领域占据一席之地。天然蚕丝具有产量大、机械性能优异和生物可降解的优势。近年来,面向智能应用的蚕丝基纤维与织物逐渐发展,被用于传感、致动、光学器件、能量收集和储能等领域。本文将首先介绍天然蚕丝的层级结构和性能,并介绍各种形貌结构的再生蚕丝材料|然后根据其在智能纤维及织物中应用领域的不同,详细阐述蚕丝基智能纤维及织物的制备方法、性能及工作机制|最后讨论进一步发展所面临的挑战与机会,并对未来前景进行展望。

关键词: 蚕丝, 制备方法, 智能纤维, 电子织物, 柔性可穿戴器件

Abstract: Fibers and textiles with good flexibility, air permeability, and mechanical properties are indispensable materials in our daily lives. With the rapid development of flexible electronics, fabricating fibers and textiles that exhibit intelligent characteristics has become an attractive research topic. On the basis of the characteristics of common fibers or textiles, intelligent fibers and textiles may exhibit unique functions such as sensing, feedback, response, self-diagnosis, self-repair, and self-regulation. The development of intelligent fibers and textiles is closely related with the development of material science. Many materials, including metals, artificial polymers and natural biopolymers can be used for fabricating intelligent fibers and textiles. Compared with metals and artificial polymers, natural biopolymers have advantages of green source, biosafety, biodegradability and lightweight. Among natural biopolymers, natural silks, especially that from Bombyx mori, can be obtained in large amounts and have been used for clothes for thousands of years. Silkworm silk has exceptional mechanical properties, attractive luster, good biocompatibility and biodegradability. Therefore, silk materials are considered to be one of most promising candidates for intelligent fibers and textiles. In this review, we firstly introduce the hierarchical structures and basic properties of natural silk fibers. The exceptional mechanical properties of silk fibers can be ascribed to their unique hierarchical structures (from polypeptide chains, secondary structures to macroscopic fibers). The approaches to fabricate regenerated silk materials are briefly reviewed. The basic properties of silk materials, including the mechanical properties, biocompatibility, biodegradability, optical properties, piezoelectric properties, and thermal stability are presented. Then, the application of silk materials in various intelligent fibers and textiles, including fiber-based sensors, actuators, optical devices, energy harvesting and storage devices, are reviewed. Silk fibers can be functionalized and made into strain sensors, pressure sensors, and humidity sensors for applications in health monitoring. They can also transform into electrically conductive materials through high-temperature carbonization and then be fabricated into high-performance sensors or other functional devices. Silk-based actuators have been fabricated based on the response of silk to water or other molecules. Besides, silk-based fluorescence fibers and optical fibers were developed. Silk fibers have also been used in wearable energy devices by designing and fabricating piezoelectric nanogenerators, triboelectric nanogenerators, super-capacitors and batteries. The preparation methods, performance, and working mechanisms of those silk-based intelligent fibers and textiles are discussed in details. Finally, the persisting challenges and future opportunities of silk-based intelligent fibers and textiles are discussed. We believe that silk-based materials have great potential for intelligent fibers and textiles. The further development of this field will be accelerated by the continued development of material science and related techniques.

Key words: Silk material, Preparation method, Intelligent fiber, Electronic Textile, Flexible and wearable device

MSC2000: 

  • O647