物理化学学报

所属专题: 烯碳纤维与智能织物

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烯碳材料在人工肌肉领域的应用进展

温烨烨1,2, 任明3,4, 邸江涛3,4, 张锦1,2   

  1. 1 北京大学化学与分子工程学院, 北京分子科学国家研究中心, 北京大学纳米化学研究中心, 北京 100871;
    2 北京石墨烯研究院, 北京 100095;
    3 中国科学院苏州纳米技术与纳米仿生研究所, 江苏 苏州 215123;
    4 中国科学技术大学纳米技术与纳米仿生学院, 合肥 230026
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-02 修回日期:2021-07-28 录用日期:2021-07-28 发布日期:2021-08-05
  • 基金资助:
    北京分子科学国家研究中心(BNLMS-CXTD-202001),中国科学技术部(2016YFA0200100,2018YFA0703502),国家自然科学基金(52021006,51720105003,21790052,21974004)资助项目

Application of Carbonene Materials for Artificial Muscles

Yeye Wen1,2, Ming Ren3,4, Jiangtao Di3,4, Jin Zhang1,2   

  1. 1 Center of Nano Chemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    2 Beijing Graphene Institute (BGI), Beijing 100095, China;
    3 Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province, China;
    4 School of Nano-Technology and Nano-Bionics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
  • Received:2021-07-02 Revised:2021-07-28 Accepted:2021-07-28 Published:2021-08-05
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS-CXTD-202001), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2016YFA0200100, 2018YFA0703502), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (52021006, 51720105003, 21790052, 21974004).

摘要: 随着仿生机器人、智能控制及人工智能等领域的发展,传统的机械驱动方式已无法满足相关领域对致动系统提出的柔性、高效及多源刺激响应性等要求,因此需发展新型的人工肌肉材料。以碳纳米管和石墨烯为代表的烯碳材料具有轻质、高强、高电导率和柔性等特征,在人工肌肉领域展现出了巨大的应用潜力。以烯碳材料为基元构筑宏观组装体材料,或以烯碳材料为添加相制备纳米复合材料,可在微观和宏观架起桥梁,实现烯碳材料在人工肌肉领域的应用。本文基于上述两种应用形式,综述了烯碳材料在人工肌肉领域的应用进展。首先从一维纤维和二维薄膜的烯碳人工肌肉宏观表现形态出发,介绍了既作为结构材料,又提供了响应、驱动功能的烯碳材料在人工肌肉中的应用。接着从机电性能、可编程的响应形变以及传感功能三个方向,介绍了烯碳材料作为增强赋能相在人工肌肉材料中的功能性应用。最后阐述了基于烯碳材料人工肌肉的机遇与挑战。

关键词: 烯碳材料, 人工肌肉, 应用, 结构, 功能

Abstract: The development of new types of artificial muscles is of utmost importance as traditional actuators based on mechanical drive systems no longer meet the stringent requirements of flexibility, high efficiency, and multistimuli responses in advanced functional fields, such as soft and biomimetic robots, sensors, artificial intelligent control, and artificial intelligence. Carbonene materials refer to carbon materials composed of all carbon atoms with sp2 hybridization, mainly including carbon nanotubes and graphene. Owing to their exceptional properties such as light weight, excellent mechanical performance, high conductivity, flexibility, and large specific surface area, carbonene materials demonstrate significant application potential in artificial muscles, thereby promoting the rapid development of corresponding fields. Herein, the recent progress of the application of carbonene materials in artificial muscles is summarized to provide a comprehensive understanding of the preparation, properties, and applications of artificial muscles composed of carbonene materials. First, carbonene artificial muscles integrating response, actuation, and structure are introduced. As carbonene materials are unique building blocks that can be readily assembled into macroscopic materials with various structures, fibrous and membranous artificial muscles based on carbonene materials are discussed in detail. Carbonene fiber actuators demonstrate diverse actuation performances when fabricated with different structures. Bending actuation typically occurs when carbonene artificial muscles with asymmetric structures are subjected to external stimulation. The untwisting of carbonene artificial muscle fibers with twisted structures causes torsional and tensile actuation, which can be attributed to the volume expansion induced by external stimuli. Furthermore, coiled structures achieved by twisting a fiber until it is fully coiled can enhance the actuation stroke. Thus, the actuation of artificial muscle fibers made of carbonene materials can be classified into bending, rotation, and contraction actuations. Second, carbonene materials have long been considered as a functional component in composite materials for specific applications owing to their excellent physical and chemical properties. Therefore, the application of carbonene materials as an additional component to other artificial muscle materials (such as smart hydrogels, dielectric elastomers, and conducting polymers) is reviewed. By employing carbonene materials, artificial muscle materials exhibit improved electrical and mechanical properties, thereby leading to superior actuation performances. In addition, integrating carbonene materials into artificial muscles can endow the muscles with programmable actuation and sensing functions. Finally, the challenges faced in the application of artificial muscles based on carbonene materials and the future application of carbonene artificial muscles with multi-functional actuation performance are briefly discussed.

Key words: Carbonene materials, Artificial muscles, Application, Structure, Function

MSC2000: 

  • O647