物理化学学报 >> 2022, Vol. 38 >> Issue (10): 2203016.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB202203016

所属专题: 生物质催化转化

综述 上一篇    下一篇

生物质转化中C―O/C―C键的活化断裂

周浩, 景亚轩(), 王艳芹()   

  • 收稿日期:2022-03-10 录用日期:2022-04-11 发布日期:2022-04-13
  • 通讯作者: 景亚轩,王艳芹 E-mail:jingyaxuan@mail.ecust.edu.cn;wangyanqin@ecust.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(21832002);国家自然科学基金(21808063);国家自然科学基金(21808043);国家自然科学基金(21872050);国家自然科学基金(22003016);国家自然科学基金(92145302);国家自然科学基金(22102056);中国博士后科学基金(2021M691011);中国博士后科学基金(2021TQ0106);上海超级博士后和上海市科学技术委员会(10dz2220500)

Activation/Cleavage of C―O/C―C Bonds during Biomass Conversion

Hao Zhou, Yaxuan Jing(), Yanqin Wang()   

  • Received:2022-03-10 Accepted:2022-04-11 Published:2022-04-13
  • Contact: Yaxuan Jing,Yanqin Wang E-mail:jingyaxuan@mail.ecust.edu.cn;wangyanqin@ecust.edu.cn
  • About author:Yanqin Wang, Email: wangyanqin@ecust.edu.cn (Y.W.)
    Yaxuan Jing, Email: jingyaxuan@mail.ecust.edu.cn (Y.J.)
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21832002);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21808063);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21808043);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21872050);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(22003016);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(92145302);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(22102056);the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2021M691011);the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2021TQ0106);Shanghai Super Postdoctoral Fellow, and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality(10dz2220500)

摘要:

生物质作为自然界中唯一可持续的有机碳来源,在解决环境和能源问题、创建一个碳中和的社会方面展现出巨大的潜力。木质生物质是由具有C―O/C―C键的基本结构单元构成的高分子化合物,活化、断裂这些C―O/C―C键是生物质高值化利用的关键,因此在过去十年中受到了广泛的关注。本文首先简要综述了生物质转化中C―O/C―C键催化断裂的现状,主要关注C―O/C―C键断裂的关键挑战和现有策略。我们的目标不是全面概述C―O/C―C键活化断裂的现况,而是提出与C―O/C―C键断裂相关的核心问题并且对未来的研究作出展望。我们选择了碳水化合物和木质素中几种具有代表性的C―O/C―C键来讨论它们在不同情况下协同催化断裂的机理,然后对未来的研究提出自己的见解。

关键词: 生物质, 催化转化, C―O键, C―C键, 活化断裂机理

Abstract:

Sustainable fuels and chemicals are receiving unprecedented attention worldwide in the context of achieving global carbon neutrality. Biomass, as the only natural and sustainable carbon-based source, shows great potential in addressing our current environmental/energy problems and in creating a carbon-neutral society. Lignocellulosic biomass is made up of basic structural units containing C―O/C―C bonds, and the catalytic cleavage of these C―O/C―C bonds is the key for biomass valorization; thus, garnering considerable attention in the past decade. This viewpoint begins with a brief report on the current status of catalytic activation/cleavage of C―O/C―C bonds during biomass conversion, and then goes on to discuss the key challenges experienced and possible strategies that can be implemented using cooperative catalysis. Our goal is not to provide a comprehensive overview of the activation/cleavage of the C―O/C―C bonds in biomass, but rather to highlight the core questions and challenges related to this process and the requirements for future investigations. We selected several representative C―O/C―C bonds in carbohydrates and lignin to discuss their catalytic mechanism in terms of total/selective bond cleavage, and then present our own insights for future studies. Therefore, this article mainly discusses the following two aspects: (1) The activation and cleavage of C―O bonds, which includes total and selective C―O bond cleavage in furan-based fuel precursors and lignin. When aiming to produce liquid fuels, including alkanes and arenes from biomass, the total cleavage of C―O bonds is essential. During the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of furan-based fuel precursors, various C―O bonds need to be cleaved, especially the C―O bond of each tetrahydrofuran ring, which has the highest bond energy. When compared with the total HDO of fuel precursors, the removal of the phenolic hydroxyl groups in lignin to produce arenes is more challenging because of the competition between the over-hydrogenation of the benzene rings and the cleavage of phenolic C―O bonds. The selective or partial cleavage of C―O/C―C bonds to form highly functionalized chemicals has recently attracted great interest and is believed to be a dynamic future research avenue. For example, the production of phenol from lignin or lignin-model compounds, through the selective removal of methoxy groups and para-side-chain groups, while preserving the phenolic hydroxyl groups, has been extensively explored in the past few years. (2) The other important aspect of this article is the cleavage of the C―C bonds in carbohydrates and lignin. The cleavage of carbohydrate C―C bonds occurs via retro-aldol condensation, which produces propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, ethanol, and lactic acid. The cleavage of C―C bonds in lignin is challenging because the bond energy of the C―C bonds is generally higher than that of the C―O bonds in lignin. Therefore, in this section, we discuss the cleavage of the strongest 5―5' bond in lignin. Finally, some subjective perspectives and future directions are provided, also highlighting several major challenges in this field.

Key words: Biomass, Catalytic conversion, C―O bond, C―C bond, Cleavage mechanism

MSC2000: 

  • O643