物理化学学报 >> 2023, Vol. 39 >> Issue (2): 2209001.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB202209001

综述 上一篇    

“绿氢”工业化碱性催化剂研究现状及未来展望

徐斯然1, 吴奇3, 卢帮安1, 唐堂2, 张佳楠1,*(), 胡劲松2,*()   

  1. 1 郑州市先进能源催化功能材料制备技术重点实验室, 郑州大学材料科学与工程学院, 郑州 450001
    2 北京分子科学国家实验室, 分子纳米结构与纳米技术重点实验室, 中国科学院化学研究所, 北京 100190
    3 污染物分析与回收利用技术湖北省重点实验室, 湖北师范大学化学化工学院, 湖北 黄石 435002
  • 收稿日期:2022-09-02 录用日期:2022-10-10 发布日期:2022-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 张佳楠,胡劲松 E-mail:zjn@zzu.edu.cn;hujs@iccas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(21875221);国家自然科学基金(U1967215);国家自然科学基金(22025208);河南省高层次人才专项支持计划青年人才支持计划(ZYQR201810148);河南省教育厅创新人才计划(19HASTIT039)

Recent Advances and Future Prospects on Industrial Catalysts for Green Hydrogen Production in Alkaline Media

Siran Xu1, Qi Wu3, Bang-An Lu1, Tang Tang2, Jia-Nan Zhang1,*(), Jin-Song Hu2,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Catalytic and Functional Materials Preparation, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
    2 Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructure and Nanotechnology, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
    3 Hubei Key Laboratory of Pollutant Analysis & Reuse Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002, Hubei Province, China
  • Received:2022-09-02 Accepted:2022-10-10 Published:2022-10-25
  • Contact: Jia-Nan Zhang,Jin-Song Hu E-mail:zjn@zzu.edu.cn;hujs@iccas.ac.cn
  • About author:Email: hujs@iccas.ac.cn (J.H.)
    Email: zjn@zzu.edu.cn (J.Z.)
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21875221);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(U1967215);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(22025208);the Youth Talent Support Program of High-Level Talents Special Support Plan in Henan Province(ZYQR201810148);the Creative talents in the Education Department of Henan Province(19HASTIT039)

摘要:

电解水制氢技术的发展对于加快实现全球碳中和目标具有重要意义。然而,碱性介质中缓慢的析氢/析氧反应动力学过程目前是阻碍该技术发展的瓶颈问题。基于此,本文首先综述了碱性环境下析氢反应与析氧反应不同的动力学理论机制,总结了针对改善动力学反应过程的理论设计策略。随后,介绍了目前电解水催化剂的设计理念及方向。对新兴的“绿氢”技术而言,探索在高电流密度下高性能电催化剂对这项技术在工业化应用推广中起着核心作用。同时,大规模合成策略是辅助合成工业电极的关键技术。进一步,我们在推进“绿氢”工业化应用的基础上总结了目前常用三种电解槽,介绍了目前电解槽设计的局限性及对应解决方案。总之,深入研究适用于碱性环境中的工业电催化剂、商业膜或电解槽的设计,提高对工业设计原则的理解,对于获得效率更高、安全性更高、实用性更强的工业电解槽具有重要意义。

关键词: 碱性介质, "绿氢", 电解水, 析氢反应, 析氧反应, 工业电极, 电解槽

Abstract:

Green hydrogen is obtained by electrochemical water splitting using electricity converted from renewable energy sources. When green hydrogen undergoes combustion, it produces only water, leading to zero CO2 emissions from the source, which is important for the global energy transition. The sluggish kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)/oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media have hindered an enhancement in hydrogen production from electrochemical water splitting. A detailed understanding of the alkaline reaction kinetics is important to accomplish the global mission of carbon neutrality. This review presents the theoretical kinetics for the HER and OER in alkaline media using different designed electrocatalysts, and discusses their corresponding reaction mechanisms. Subsequently, current design concepts and generalities on catalysts for water electrolysis are discussed. Enhancements in the OER activity for alkaline water electrolysis can be achieved through strategies that are classified into two major categories. In the first category, the exposure of numerous active sites is achieved by engineering the morphology and obtaining a high surface area. In the second category, the intrinsic activity of the catalyst toward the OER is enhanced by heteroatomic participation, vacancy formation, and the use of heterogeneous media. Advanced characterization techniques and in-situ testing techniques have confirmed the presence of complex oxidation media for the OER, which have a significant impact on the catalyst structure and local coordination. Research on the active sites of the catalyst, high concentrations of active species, and the design of highly efficient reaction media is required to further drive catalyst development for the OER. The evaluation of electrocatalysts exhibiting high performance at high current densities to produce green hydrogen is crucial for their implementation in industrial applications. Currently, large-scale synthesis a key technology to obtain industrial electrodes. Meanwhile, the construction of superaerophobic electrodes and three-dimensional electrodes facilitates the design of high-performance industrial catalytic electrodes. Subsequently, three different electrolytic cells that are typically used to obtain green hydrogen at the industrial scale are presented. The limitations to the design of electrolytic cells and the related solutions are also discussed. In-depth investigations on the design of either industrial electrocatalysts, commercial membranes, or electrolyzers can improve the understanding of industrial design principles to be applied to obtain industrial electrolyzers with increased efficiency, safety, and practicality. Finally, recent developments on electrocatalysts for water splitting and their limitations for industrial applications are presented to provide new perspectives and guidelines on the preparation of next-generation electrolytic catalysts.

Key words: Alkaline media, "Green hydrogen", Water splitting, Hydrogen evolution reaction, Oxygen evolution reaction, Industrial electrode, Electrolytic cell

MSC2000: 

  • O643