物理化学学报 >> 2023, Vol. 39 >> Issue (3): 2210002.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB202210002

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贫PbI2基体的胶体量子点固体用于高效红外太阳能电池

张明旭1, 周琪森1, 梅馨怡1, 陈婧萱1, 邱俊明1, 李修志2, 李霜1, 于牧冰1, 秦朝朝2, 张晓亮1,*()   

  1. 1 北京航空航天大学材料科学与工程学院, 北京 100191
    2 河南师范大学物理学院, 河南省红外材料与光谱测量与应用重点实验室, 河南 新乡 453007
  • 收稿日期:2022-10-05 录用日期:2022-11-24 发布日期:2022-12-02
  • 通讯作者: 张晓亮 E-mail:xiaoliang.zhang@buaa.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(51872014);国家自然科学基金(12074104);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金和“111”项目(B17002)

Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids with a Diminished Epitaxial PbI2 Matrix for Efficient Infrared Solar Cells

Mingxu Zhang1, Qisen Zhou1, Xinyi Mei1, Jingxuan Chen1, Junming Qiu1, Xiuzhi Li2, Shuang Li1, Mubing Yu1, Chaochao Qin2, Xiaoliang Zhang1,*()   

  1. 1 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, 100191 Beijing, China
    2 Henan Key Laboratory of Infrared Materials & Spectrum Measures and Applications, School of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, Henan Province, China
  • Received:2022-10-05 Accepted:2022-11-24 Published:2022-12-02
  • Contact: Xiaoliang Zhang E-mail:xiaoliang.zhang@buaa.edu.cn
  • About author:Xiaoliang Zhang, Email: xiaoliang.zhang@buaa.edu.cn; Tel.: +86-10-82315857
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51872014);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(12074104);the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the "111" project(B17002)

摘要:

胶体量子点(CQD)具有优异的红外光吸收能力和光谱可调特性,是用于制备高效太阳能电池最有前途的红外光电材料之一。然而,以醋酸铵(AA)为添加剂的液相配体交换会导致CQD固体中产生宽带隙PbI2基质,其将作为电荷传输势垒,在很大程度上影响了CQD太阳能电池(CQDSC)中载流子的提取,从而影响了光伏性能。本文报道利用二甲基碘化铵(DMAI)调节CQD配体交换过程,使载流子在CQD固体中的传输势垒大幅降低。通过对CQD固体进行全面的表征和理论计算,充分揭示了DMAI和CQD之间的相互作用。结果表明,通过DMAI调节CQD配体交换过程,使CQD固体均匀堆积,提高了载流子输运性能,并且陷阱辅助复合受到显著抑制。因此,CQDSC器件中的载流子提取得到了大幅提高,能量转换效率(PCE)比用AA制备的CQDSC器件提高了17.8%。此工作为调控CQD表面化学特性提供了新的研究思路,并为降低CQD固体中载流子输运的势垒提供了可行的方法。

关键词: 胶体量子点, 表面化学, 电荷转移势垒, 红外太阳电池, 配体交换

Abstract:

Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are extremely promising infrared optoelectronic materials for efficient solar cells owing to their strong infrared absorption with tunable spectra. However, the liquid-state ligand exchange of CQDs using ammonium acetate (AA) as an additive generally resulted in intensive charge-transport barriers within the CQD solids. This is induced by the high-bandgap PbI2 matrix, which considerably affects the charge-carrier extraction of CQD solar cells (CQDSCs), and thus their photovoltaic performance. Herein, dimethylammonium iodide (DMAI) was used as an additive instead for the liquid-state ligand exchange, substantially eliminating the PbI2 matrix capping the CQDs and simultaneously restraining CQD fusion during the ligand exchange, thereby reducing the barriers for the charge-carrier transport within the CQD solids. Extensive experimental studies and theoretical calculations were performed to link the surface chemistry of the CQDs with the charge-carrier dynamics within the CQD solids and full solar cell devices. The theoretical calculation results reveal that DMAI which possess small dissociation energy could finely regulate the ligand exchange of CQDs, resulting in the suppressed energetic disorder and diminished charge-transport barriers in the CQD solids compared to those of the CQD solids prepared using AA. The DMAI-treated quantum dots were characterized and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and 2D grazing-incidence wide-and small-angle X-ray scattering spectrometry. The results show PbI2-related Bragg peaks in the AA-treated CQD solid films, indicating a thick layer of PbI2 crystal matrix being formed in the CQD solids, whereas there was no obvious PbI2 signal observed in DMAI-treated CQD solids. These results also demonstrate that DMAI provides additional I?, improving the surface passivation of the CQDs and reducing trap-assisted recombination. For the infrared photovoltaic applications, the CQDSC devices were fabricated, which shows that the photovoltaic performance of CQDSCs was significantly improved. The power conversion efficiency of DMAI-based CQDSCs was improved by 17.8% compared with that of the AA-based CQDSC. The charge-carrier dynamics in both CQD solids and full solar cell devices were analyzed in detail, revealing that the improved photovoltaic performance in DMAI-based CQDSCs was attributed to the facilitated charge-carrier transport within the CQD solids and suppressed trap-assisted recombination, resulting from eliminated charge-transport barriers and improved surface passivation of CQDs, respectively. This work provides a new avenue to controlling the surface chemistry of infrared CQDs and a feasible approach to substantially diminishing the charge transfer barriers of CQD solids for infrared solar cells.

Key words: Colloidal quantum dot, Surface chemistry, Charge transfer barrier, Infrared solar cell, Ligand exchange

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