物理化学学报 >> 2005, Vol. 21 >> Issue (04): 414-418.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB20050414

研究论文 上一篇    下一篇

以多层次聚苯胺颗粒为电极活性物质的超级电容器的电化学性能

杨红生; 周啸; 张庆   

  1. 清华大学化学工程系高分子研究所,北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2004-08-24 修回日期:2004-12-06 发布日期:2005-04-15
  • 通讯作者: 周啸 E-mail:zhoux@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

Electrochemical Performances of Supercapacitor with Polyaniline Particles with Hierarchy as Active Electrode Material

YANG Hong-Sheng; ZHOU Xiao; ZHANG Qing-Wu   

  1. Institute of Polymer, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
  • Received:2004-08-24 Revised:2004-12-06 Published:2005-04-15
  • Contact: ZHOU Xiao E-mail:zhoux@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

摘要: 以(NH4)2S2O8为氧化剂用化学氧化法合成了具有多层次结构的聚苯胺颗粒,其二次颗粒由一次颗粒集结而成,一次颗粒的粒径基本上在1 μm以下,一次颗粒由多层微小薄片叠合而成. 用这种聚苯胺为活性物质制成电极,以2 mol•L-1的H2SO4水溶液作电解液,组装成了聚苯胺电极超级电容器. 用循环伏安法、电化学阻抗谱和恒电流充放电技术测试了该超级电容器的电化学性能.在7 mA的充放电电流下,它的比能量可达6.35 Wh•kg-1,比功率可达132 W•kg-1,电极材料的比容量可达408 F•g-1. 在20 mA的充放电电流下,它的比能量可达4.39 Wh•kg-1,比功率可达328 W•kg-1,电极材料的比容量可达324 F•g-1. 在100次的充放电循环中,聚苯胺电极超级电容器的电容量没有下降,电荷充放电效率一直保持在95%左右.

关键词: 聚苯胺, 超级电容器, 电化学电容器, 导电高分子

Abstract: Polyaniline (PANi) particles with hierarchy are prepared by adding (NH4)2S2O8 dropwise into aqueous solution containing aniline monomer and HCl acid at 0 ℃ under nitrogen atmosphere with stirring. SEM images show that the resulted PANi particles are composed of their primary particles, which are composed of multi-layer flakes. Symmetric redox supercapacitor (prototype) is assembled with the PANi particles as active electrode materials and 2 mol•L-1 H2SO4 aqueous solution as electrolyte. The electrochemical performances of the supercapacitor are tested with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. When the charge-discharge current is 7 mA, the specific energy and specific power of the supercapacitor can reach 6.35 Wh•kg-1 and 132 W•kg-1 (based on the mass of PANi), respectively;the capacitance of PANi electrode is about 408 F•g-1 . When the charge-discharge current is 20 mA, the specific energy and specific power of the super-capacitor can reach 4.39 Wh•kg-1 and 328 W•kg-1 (based on the weight of PANi), respectively; the capacitance of PANi electrode is about 324 F•g-1 . During 100 charge-discharge cycles, the discharge capacity of the supercapacitor is constant, and the charge-discharge efficiency is 95%. The results show that the PANi supercapacitor with hierarchial particles as active electrode material can store a great deal of charge and energy in H2SO4 solution.

Key words: Polyaniline, Supercapacitor, Electrochemical capacitor, Conducting polymer