物理化学学报 >> 2010, Vol. 26 >> Issue (10): 2666-2671.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB20100933

胶体及界面化学 上一篇    下一篇

催化剂对乳液模板法制备碳材料形貌的影响

甘礼华1, 刘明贤1,2, 陈龙武1, 胡军2, 刘洪来2   

  1. 1. 同济大学化学系, 上海200092;
    2. 华东理工大学化学系, 结构可控先进功能材料及其制备教育部重点实验室,上海200237
  • 收稿日期:2010-04-28 修回日期:2010-06-04 发布日期:2010-09-27
  • 通讯作者: 甘礼华,刘洪来 E-mail:ganlh@tongji.edu.cn, hlliu@ecust.edu.cn;
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(20973127, 20776045, 20736002)、上海市科委纳米专项基金(0952nm00800)、国家高技术研究发展计划(863)项目(2008AA062302)、中国博士后科学基金(20090460647)和上海市博士后科研资助计划(10R21412100)资助

Effect of Catalysts on the Morphologies of Carbon Materials Synthesized by an Emulsion Templating Method

GAN Li-Hua1, LIU Ming-Xian1,2, CHEN Long-Wu1, HU Jun2, LIU Hong-Lai2   

  1. 1. Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, P. R. China;
    2. Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, P. R. China
  • Received:2010-04-28 Revised:2010-06-04 Published:2010-09-27
  • Contact: GAN Li-Hua,LIU HONG-Lai E-mail:ganlh@tongji.edu.cn, hlliu@ecust.edu.cn;
  • Supported by:

    The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (20973127, 20776045, 20736002), Shanghai Nanotechnology Promotion Center, China (0952nm00800), National High Technology Research and Development Programof China (2008AA062302), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (20090460647) and Shanghai Postdoctoral Scientific Program, China (10R21412100).

摘要:

以液体石蜡为油相, 间苯二酚和甲醛的水溶液为水相, 吐温80 和司班80 为乳化剂, 获得油/水(O/W) 型乳状液. 将该乳状液聚合、碳化去除模板后制得了碳材料, 研究了不同催化剂对所得碳材料形貌的影响. 结果表明: 选择NaOH 为催化剂时, 制得的碳材料是一种具有孔壁和孔洞的多孔碳泡沫, 典型样品的孔径约为1-2 μm; 当氨水为催化剂时, 所得碳材料是由微球或者相互缠绕的蠕虫状粒子组成的块体材料, 这些微球或粒子的直径主要集中在1-2 μm, 与NaOH 为催化剂时所得碳泡沫的孔径尺寸相当. 研究发现, 氨水的加入使得乳液体系发生了相转化, 由原来的O/W 型乳液逐渐转变为W/O 型高内相乳液. 从分子间氢键出发, 应用内聚能理论探讨了催化剂导致的乳液相变以及不同形貌碳材料的形成过程.

关键词: 乳状液, 催化剂, 碳材料, 形貌, 相变, 氢键

Abstract:

An oil in water (O/W) emulsion with a resorcinol and formaldehyde (R+F) water solution as the external phase and liquid paraffin as the internal phase together with Span 80/Tween 80 as emulsifiers was obtained. Carbon materials were prepared by polymerization of the emulsion, followed by carbonization for template removal. The effect of catalysts on the morphologies of the carbon materials was investigated. The results indicate that the resultant representative carbons area type of porous carbon foam and possess pore walls and pores of 1-2 μm in size when NaOH is used as a catalyst. However, monolithic carbon materials consisting of microspheres or intertwinded wormlike particles were prepared using ammonia as an alternative catalyst. The diameters of these microspheres or particles were mainly around 1-2 μm and these dimensions are similar to the pore sizes of the carbon foams. We find that ammonia causes the initial O/W emulsion system to experience a phase inversion towarda W/O high internal phase emulsion.A mechanism involving intermolecular H-bond interactions and cohesive energy theory is proposed to explain the catalyst-induced phase inversion phenomenon as well as the formation of carbon materials with different morphologies.

Key words: Emulsion, Catalyst, Carbon material, Morphology, Phase inversion, H-bond

MSC2000: 

  • O648