物理化学学报 >> 2020, Vol. 36 >> Issue (9): 2003047.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB202003047

所属专题: 精准纳米合成

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铂基金属间化合物纳米晶的最新进展:可控合成与电催化应用

杨天怡1, 崔铖1, 戎宏盼1,*(), 张加涛1, 王定胜2,*()   

  1. 1 北京理工大学材料学院,结构可控先进功能材料与绿色应用北京市重点实验室,北京 100081
    2 清华大学化学系,北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-19 录用日期:2020-04-17 发布日期:2020-04-24
  • 通讯作者: 戎宏盼,王定胜 E-mail:rhp@bit.edu.cn;wangdingsheng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:戎宏盼,2015年获清华大学博士学位;现任北京理工大学材料学院特别副研究员。主要从事金属纳米材料的制备与应用、单原子材料制备及电催化性能研究|王定胜,2009年获清华大学化学系博士学位;国家优秀青年基金获得者,现任清华大学化学系副教授,博导。主要从事纳米材料制备与性能、金属纳米催化研究
  • 基金资助:
    北京理工大学青年教师学术启动计划;中国国家重点研发计划(2018YFA0702003);中国国家重点研发计划(2016YFA0202801);国家自然科学基金(51631001);国家自然科学基金(51872030);国家自然科学基金(51702016);国家自然科学基金(51902023);国家自然科学基金(21801015);国家自然科学基金(21890383);国家自然科学基金(21671117);国家自然科学基金(21871159);北京市科学技术委员会(Z191100007219003)

Recent Advances in Platinum-based Intermetallic Nanocrystals: Controlled Synthesis and Electrocatalytic Applications

Tianyi Yang1, Cheng Cui1, Hongpan Rong1,*(), Jiatao Zhang1, Dingsheng Wang2,*()   

  1. 1 Beijing Key Laboratory of Construction-Tailorable Advanced Functional Materials and Green Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, P. R. China
    2 Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China
  • Received:2020-03-19 Accepted:2020-04-17 Published:2020-04-24
  • Contact: Hongpan Rong,Dingsheng Wang E-mail:rhp@bit.edu.cn;wangdingsheng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the Beijing Institute of Technology Research Fund Program for Young Scholars, China;the National Key R&D Program of China(2018YFA0702003);the National Key R&D Program of China(2016YFA0202801);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51631001);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51872030);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51702016);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51902023);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21801015);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21890383);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21671117);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21871159);the Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission, China(Z191100007219003)

摘要:

铂基金属间化合物纳米晶因其高度有序的结构特点,优异的抗氧化及耐腐蚀性能,作为电极材料被广泛应用于各类电催化反应,目前已有的PtCo金属间化合物纳米晶在燃料电池阴极反应(氧还原反应)中的活性和稳定性均达到了美国能源部(DOE) 2020年的目标。为了进一步提高金属间化合物纳米晶的电催化性能,需要对影响纳米晶电催化性能的因素进行深入研究。本文综述了铂基金属间化合物纳米晶的研究现状,着重介绍了铂基金属间化合物的可控合成策略及其在电催化领域的最新研究进展,分析总结了该领域存在的问题,并展望了其未来发展方向。

关键词: 铂基金属间化合物, 纳米晶, 可控合成, 结构有序, 电催化反应

Abstract:

Fuel cells, whose energy source can be hydrogen, formic acid, methanol, or ethanol, have received considerable attention in recent years because of their environmentally friendly characteristics. A high Pt loading is often required to achieve a practical power density in fuel cells, thus leading to high costs and limited applications. Meanwhile, the high Pt loading promotes aggregation during cycling under harsh electrocatalytic conditions, which reduces the surface area of the catalyst and leads to a decrease in catalytic activity. The formation of alloy or intermetallic nanocrystals via the addition of non-precious metals along with precious metals is one strategy to effectively reduce the cost. Due to the electronic and geometric effects introduced by the non-precious metals, the catalytic performance of these bimetallic nanocrystals can be retained or even improved. Compared to the metallic alloy nanocrystals, the intermetallic ones are more stable in critical catalytic conditions. Due to their highly ordered structures, Pt-based intermetallic nanocrystals are widely used as electrode materials for various electrocatalytic reactions in fuel cells, and they show high stability against oxidation and etching. PtCo intermetallic nanocrystals have attained performances that exceed the 2020 target of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for Pt activity and stability for the cathode reaction of fuel cells (oxygen reduction reaction). Decreasing the size of intermetallic compounds to the nanometer scale can significantly increase their active site densities due to the large specific surface area. However, the preparation of intermetallic nanocrystals is more complicated than that of alloys. Therefore, to further improve the electrocatalytic properties of intermetallic nanocrystals, an in-depth study of the factors affecting the electrocatalytic properties of nanocrystals is necessary. This review summarizes recent advances in Pt-based intermetallic nanocrystals. First, we highlight the controlled synthesis strategies, including direct liquid-phase synthesis, the thermal annealing approach, and chemical vapor deposition. Of these strategies, direct liquid-phase synthesis is the most common approach to prepare the intermetallic nanocrystals. Second, the diverse potential applications of different electrocatalytic reactions are summarized. The reactions include the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), as well as the oxidation reactions of formic acid (FAOR), methanol (MOR), and ethanol (EtOR). Of these reactions, ORR is the most important, and it has been widely studied. Some advanced characterization techniques and machine learning research based on density functional theory (DFT) are also mentioned. Finally, the challenges and the future perspectives of intermetallic nanocrystals are outlined.

Key words: Platinum-based intermetallic compounds, Nanocrystals, Controlled synthesis, Structure-ordered, Electrocatalytic reactions

MSC2000: 

  • O643