物理化学学报 >> 2020, Vol. 36 >> Issue (12): 2003050.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB202003050

所属专题: 神经界面

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基于一维和二维纳米材料的神经界面构筑

许可1,2,3, 王晋芬1,2,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院纳米科学卓越创新中心,国家纳米科学中心,北京 100190
    2 中国科学院纳米生物效应与安全性重点实验室,国家纳米科学中心,北京 100190
    3 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-21 录用日期:2020-04-23 发布日期:2020-04-29
  • 通讯作者: 王晋芬 E-mail:wangjinfen@nanoctr.cn
  • 作者简介:王晋芬,1984年出生。在西南大学化学化工学院获得学士和硕士学位,在中国科学院大学获得生物电子学博士学位。现在国家纳米科学中心担任助理研究员一职,主要从事柔性电子与神经界面的研究
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(21790393);国家自然科学基金(61971150);中科院先导B项目(XDB32030100)

1D and 2D Nanomaterials-based Electronics for Neural Interfaces

Ke Xu1,2,3, Jinfen Wang1,2,*()   

  1. 1 CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, P. R. China
    2 CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, P. R. China
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
  • Received:2020-03-21 Accepted:2020-04-23 Published:2020-04-29
  • Contact: Jinfen Wang E-mail:wangjinfen@nanoctr.cn
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21790393);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(61971150);Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDB32030100)

摘要:

神经电极是探索大脑神经电活动的重要工具,而神经元与电极之间的界面是制约神经电极性能的主要因素。一维和二维纳米材料由于具有独特的物理与化学性质,能够从表面形貌、机械性能、电学性能和生物相容性等方面改善神经界面,成为构筑神经电极的理想材料。本文主要以碳纳米管、硅纳米线和石墨烯等纳米材料为例,概述了一维和二维纳米材料在构筑神经电极方面的研究进展,以及它们在神经界面发挥的调控作用,并对未来神经电极的构筑及其界面研究的发展方向进行了展望。

关键词: 碳纳米管, 硅纳米线, 石墨烯, 神经电极, 电生理

Abstract:

Neural interfaces have contributed significantly to our understanding of brain functions as well as the development of neural prosthetics. An ideal neural interface should create a seamless and reliable link between the nervous system and external electronics for long periods of time. Implantable electronics that are capable of recording and stimulating neuronal activities have been widely applied for the study of neural circuits or the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relatively large cross-sectional footprints of conventional electronics can cause acute tissue damage during implantation. In addition, the mechanical mismatch between conventional rigid electronics and soft brain tissue has been shown to induce chronic tissue inflammatory responses, leading to signal degradation during long-term studies. Thus, it is essential to develop new strategies to overcome these existing challenges and construct more stable neural interfaces. Owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials constitute promising candidates for next-generation neural interfaces. In particular, novel electronics based on 1D and 2D nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), silicon nanowires (SiNWs), and graphene (GR), have been demonstrated for neural interfaces with improved performance. This review discusses recent developments in neural interfaces enabled by 1D and 2D nanomaterials and their electronics. The ability of CNTs to promote neuronal growth and electrical activity has been proven, demonstrating the feasibility of using CNTs as conducting layers or as modifying layers for electronics. Owing to their good mechanical, electrical and biological properties, CNTs-based electronics have been demonstrated for neural recording and stimulation, neurotransmitter detection, and controlled drug release. Different from CNTs-based electronics, SiNWs-based field effect transistors (FETs) and microelectrode arrays have been successfully demonstrated for intracellular recording of action potentials through penetration into neural cells. Significantly, SiNWs FETs can detect neural activity at the level of individual axons and dendrites with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Their ability to record multiplexed intracellular signals renders SiNWs-based electronics superior to traditional intracellular recording techniques such as patch-clamp recording. Besides, SiNWs have been explored for optically controlled nongenetic neuromodulation due to their tunable electrical and optical properties. As the star of the 2D nanomaterials family, GR has been applied as biomimetic substrates for neural regeneration. Transparent GR-based electronics combining electrophysiological measurements, optogenetics, two-photon microscopy with multicellular calcium imaging have been applied for the construction of multimodal neural interfaces. Finally, we provide an overview of the challenges and future perspectives of nanomaterial-based neural interfaces.

Key words: Carbon nanotube, Silicon nanowire, Graphene, Neural interface, Electrophysiology

MSC2000: 

  • O646