物理化学学报

所属专题: 石墨烯的功能与应用

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石墨烯纤维:制备、性能与应用

蹇木强1,2, 张莹莹3, 刘忠范1,2   

  1. 1 北京大学化学与分子工程学院, 北京分子科学国家研究中心, 北京大学纳米化学研究中心, 北京 100871;
    2 北京石墨烯研究院, 北京 100095;
    3 清华大学化学系, 有机光电子与分子工程教育部重点实验室, 北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-31 修回日期:2020-08-24 录用日期:2020-08-24 发布日期:2020-08-27
  • 通讯作者: 刘忠范 E-mail:zfliu@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(973)(2016YFA0200103),国家自然科学基金(51432002,51290272,51672153,21975141,51972184),北京分子科学国家研究中心(BNLMS-CXTD-202001)及中国博士后科学基金(2019M660322)资助

Graphene Fibers: Preparation, Properties, and Applications

Muqiang Jian1,2, Yingying Zhang3, Zhongfan Liu1,2   

  1. 1 Center of Nano Chemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    2 Beijing Graphene Institute(BGI), Beijing 100095, China;
    3 Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2020-07-31 Revised:2020-08-24 Accepted:2020-08-24 Published:2020-08-27
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2016YFA0200103), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51432002, 51290272, 51672153, 21975141, 51972184), the Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS-CXTD-202001) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2019M660322).

摘要: 石墨烯纤维是一种由石墨烯片层紧密有序排列而成的一维宏观组装材料。通过合理的结构设计和可控制备,石墨烯纤维能够将石墨烯在微观尺度的优异性能有效传递至宏观尺度,展现出优异的力学、电学、热学等性能,从而应用于功能织物、传感、能源等领域。目前,石墨烯纤维主要通过湿法纺丝、限域水热组装等方法制备得到,其性能可以通过对材料体系和制备工艺的优化而进一步提升。本文首先介绍了石墨烯纤维的制备方法,然后详细阐述了石墨烯纤维的性能,讨论了其性能提升策略,并总结了石墨烯纤维的应用,最后对石墨烯纤维的未来发展、挑战和前景进行了展望。

关键词: 石墨烯纤维, 制备, 纺丝方法, 性能, 应用

Abstract: Graphene fiber is a macroscopic carbonaceous fiber composed of microscopic graphene sheets, and has attracted extensive attention. Graphene building blocks form a highly ordered structure, resulting in fibers with the same properties as graphene, such as superior mechanical and electrical performance, low weight, excellent flexibility, and ease of functionalization. Moreover, graphene fibers are compatible with traditional textile technologies, facilitating the development of wearable electronics, flexible energy devices, and smart textiles. Graphene fibers were first prepared in 2011 by wet spinning of graphene oxide (GO) solution, which was dispersed in water. Various fabrication methods have been developed to assemble graphene sheets into fibers since then and different strategies have been proposed to optimize their structure and performance. Graphene fibers have applications in numerous fields, including conductors, sensors, actuators, smart textiles, and flexible energy devices. This review aims to provide a comprehensive picture of the preparation approaches, properties, and applications of graphene fibers. Firstly, the preparation processes, unique structures, and properties of three typical carbonaceous fibers—carbon fibers, carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers, and graphene fibers—are compared. It can be seen that graphene fibers possess the unique structures, such as the large grain sizes and highly aligned structure, endowing them with the outstanding properties. Then a variety of fabrication techniques have been summarized, including wet spinning, dry spinning, dry-jet wet spinning, space-confined hydrothermal assembly, film conversion approach, and template-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Wet spinning is a common method to fabricate high-performance graphene fibers and is promising for the large-scale production of graphene fibers. Besides, various strategies for improving the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of graphene fibers are introduced in detail, including well-chosen graphene building blocks, optimized fabrication processes, and high-temperature treatments. Although the electrical and thermal transport properties of typical graphene fibers are better than those of carbon fibers, the strength and modulus of graphene fibers are inferior. Therefore, the enhancement of the mechanical properties of graphene fibers by optimizing the composition of precursors, controlling and adjusting the assembly processes, and exploring feasible post-treatment procedures are essential. Meanwhile, the review outlines the applications of graphene fibers in high-performance conductors, functional fabrics, flexible sensors, actuators, fiber-shaped supercapacitors and batteries. Finally, the persisting challenges and the future scope of graphene fibers are discussed. We believe that graphene fibers will become a new structural and functional material that can be applied in numerous fields in the future, aided by the continuous development of materials and techniques.

Key words: Graphene fiber, Preparation, Spinning, Property, Application

MSC2000: 

  • O647