物理化学学报

所属专题: 金属锂负极

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锂金属电池中的复合负极

赵雨萌, 任凌霄, 王澳轩, 罗加严   

  1. 天津大学化工学院, 天津 300072
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-31 修回日期:2020-09-23 录用日期:2020-09-23 发布日期:2020-10-09
  • 通讯作者: 罗加严 E-mail:jluo@tju.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(51872196),天津市自然科学基金(17JCJQJC44100),国家创新人才博士后计划(BX20190232)资助项目

Composite Anodes for Lithium Metal Batteries

Yumeng Zhao, Lingxiao Ren, Aoxuan Wang, Jiayan Luo   

  1. School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
  • Received:2020-08-31 Revised:2020-09-23 Accepted:2020-09-23 Published:2020-10-09
  • Supported by:
    The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51872196), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (17JCJQJC44100), the National Postdoctoral Program for Innovative Talents, China (BX20190232).

摘要: 锂金属具有理论比容量高、电位低等优点,被认为是电极中的“圣杯”。然而,锂金属负极在循环过程当中存在着不可控的枝晶生长、体积膨胀等问题,严重地阻碍了锂金属电池的商业化进程。本综述首先概述了锂枝晶的形成机理,然后对由小及大,自内而外,总结了近年来三种不同层次的锂金属电池复合负极:锂金属负极内部结构的复合、锂金属电池内部结构的复合以及锂金属电池内部环境与外界操作条件的复合。最后,本综述对未来多层次锂金属电池复合负极的前景做出了展望。

关键词: 锂金属电池, 锂枝晶, 复合负极, 内部结构, 外界操作条件, 多层次复合

Abstract: The applications of lithium-ion batteries have been limited because their energy density can no longer meet the requirements of an emerging energy society. Lithium metal batteries (LMBs) are being considered as potential candidate for next-generation energy storage systems owing to the high theoretical specific capacity and low electrochemical potential of lithium metal. However, the commercialization of LMB is limited due to several challenges, such as uncontrollable formation of dendrites, unstable solid electrolyte interface, and infinite anode volume change, which can lead to grievous catastrophe. In this study, several typical mechanisms of lithium dendrite formation and growth are summarized. The results suggest that a smaller current density, greater Li+ transference number, higher mechanical strength of the electrolyte, and a more homogeneous distribution of Li+ on the substrate are conducive to the uniform deposition morphology of lithium metal. In view of these results, combined with the researches on LMBs conducted in recent years, composite anodes can be summarized into three level from internal to external. (i) Internal composite of lithium metal anode:The scaffolds composited with lithium metal are classified as non-conductive (NC), electron-conductive (EC), ion-conductive (IC), and mixed ion and electron-conductive (MIEC) scaffolds. Composited with NC scaffolds, the tip effect can be weakened through the interaction between polar functional groups and Li+. The composite of lithium metal and EC scaffolds can effectively reduce the local current density, while IC scaffolds can increase the ion flux. However, the performance of LMBs may be hindered by the insulation of electrons or Li+ at high rates. In comparison, MIEC scaffolds can provide fast ion/electron transfer channels for the deposition or dissolution of lithium metal, which is beneficial for the electrochemical performance of LMBs even at high rates. (ii) Internal composite of LMB:Compared with liquid electrolytes, solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) and quasi-solid-state electrolytes are much safer. However, their interfacial contact with lithium metal anodes has been seriously criticized. Lithium metal anodes can be composited with SSEs or quasi-solid-state electrolytes to optimize the interface contact performance and reduce the interface resistance, thereby promoting the development of solid-state batteries. (iii) Composite of internal environment and external operating conditions:Composited with external physical fields, such as electric fields, magnetic fields, and temperature fields, the distribution of Li+ can be homogeneous and the initial nucleation process can be regulated. Overall, this review summarizes several composite anodes that have greatly optimized the performance of LMBs and highlights the potential of multi-level composites for applications in lithium metal anodes.

Key words: Lithium metal battery, Lithium dendrite, Composite anode, Internal structure, External operating condition, Multi-level composite

MSC2000: 

  • O646