物理化学学报 >> 2021, Vol. 37 >> Issue (9): 2009094.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB202009094

所属专题: 燃料电池

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超低铂用量质子交换膜燃料电池

王健, 丁炜(), 魏子栋()   

  • 收稿日期:2020-09-29 录用日期:2020-10-30 发布日期:2020-11-06
  • 通讯作者: 丁炜,魏子栋 E-mail:dingwei128@cqu.edu.cn;zdwei@cqu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:丁炜,1986年生,国家优秀青年基金获得者,重庆市杰青基金获得者,重庆市青年拔尖人才,博导。2014年于重庆大学获得博士学位。主要从事电化学催化,燃料电池,新能源技术方面的研究
    魏子栋,1963年生,教育部长江学者特聘教授,博导,重庆大学化学化工学院院长。1994年于天津大学获得博士学位。主要从事电化学催化,燃料电池,新能源技术方面的研究
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(22022502);国家自然科学基金(21776024);重庆市青年拔尖(02200011130003)

Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells at Ultra-Low Platinum Loadings

Jian Wang, Wei Ding(), Zidong Wei()   

  • Received:2020-09-29 Accepted:2020-10-30 Published:2020-11-06
  • Contact: Wei Ding,Zidong Wei E-mail:dingwei128@cqu.edu.cn;zdwei@cqu.edu.cn
  • About author:Emails: zdwei@cqu.edu.cn (Z.W.)
    Emails: dingwei128@cqu.edu.cn (W.D.)
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(22022502);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21776024);the Program for the Top Young Innovative Talents of Chongqing(02200011130003)

摘要:

质子交换膜燃料电池(PEMFCs)作为一种清洁、高效的能源转换装置,被认为是未来能源转换的重要技术之一,是取代现有汽车内燃机的重要途径之一。目前,PEMFCs广泛使用铂基电催化剂,电堆组装的技术水平已降低到0.2 g·kW-1。然而,按照汽车行业铂全球用量(约90 t铂,生产9500万辆),大规模应用需要将系统铂用量将至0.01 g·kW-1,挑战巨大。实现铂利用率数量级的提升,当前研究主要集中在开发高活性、高利用率、高稳定的、抗溺水的新型铂基催化剂;开发高透氧率、疏水性新型离聚物,制备超薄质子膜;合理设计高传质性能、高利用率的催化层。本文主要针对上述的问题进行了综述,分析了其催化活性增强的机理,讨论了膜电极组成设计和影响因素。

关键词: 质子交换膜燃料电池, 铂基催化剂, 质子膜, 催化层

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) generate electricity from hydrogen, powering a range of applications while emitting nothing but water. Therefore, PEMFCs are regarded as an environmentally friendly alternative to internal combustion engines for the future. Nevertheless, the high cost and scarcity of platinum (Pt) sources prevent the widespread adoption of fuel cells. With the development of fuel cell manufacturing technology, current Pt utilization has increased to a relatively high level of 0.2 g·kW-1 in PEMFCs. However, according to the PGM market report from Johnson Matthey (2020), current Pt utilization in fuel cells is still too low to meet the need for its large-scale application in the automotive industry, unless the Pt utilization can be further reduced to an ultra-low level (0.01 g·kW-1). Therefore, higher Pt mass activity and higher Pt utilization must be realized in membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) to achieve ultra-low Pt loadings and a reduced Pt usage. Many key variables affect the performance of MEA, such as the activity of electrocatalysts, conductivity and distribution of ionomers, gas diffusion in carbon papers, and the thickness of the proton exchange membrane. For example, a wide variety of highly promising catalysts have been developed, such as shape-controlled Pt nanocrystals, Pt alloy/de-alloys, core-shells, the synergetic effect of active supports, single atom/single-atom layer catalysts for improving the utilization of Pt, and anti-poisoning catalysts. However, the super-high activity of a Pt catalyst is elusive in a real fuel cell because of the lack of a fundamental understanding of the reaction interface structure and mass transfer properties in real cells. For instance, the recently developed Pt-Ni nanoframes that exhibited an extremely high mass activity of 5.7 A·mg-1 for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in a liquid half-cell only showed about one-tenth the activity in a real fuel cell (0.76 A·mg-1 Pt at 0.90 V). To achieve widespread adoption of Pt in fuel cells, we urgently need to explore new combinations of electrocatalysts, ionomers, gas diffusion layers, and proton exchange membranes. Taking into account all these factors, recent advances have enhanced the performance of MEA, such as a neural-network-like catalyst structure for higher Pt utilization, a highly order-structured with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes as a highly ordered catalyst layer that exhibits higher mass transfer efficiency, a novel anti-flooding electrode, a higher oxygen permeability and ionic conductivity ionomer, and an ultrathin MEA with low Pt loading that exhibits higher fuel cell output efficiency. This review mainly focuses on the recent progress in fuel cell cathode performance at ultra-low Pt loadings. To achieve the ultimate goal of Pt utilization (0.01 g·kW-1), further efforts to accelerate this progress are urgently needed, including improving catalytic performance by using highly active and stable supports, decreasing the gas diffusion resistance, enhancing the water management in the catalytic layer, improving the anti-poisoning property, and establishing an integrated ultra-thin and low platinum film electrode.

Key words: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell, Pt-based electrocatalyst, Proton Membrane, Catalyst layer

MSC2000: 

  • O646