物理化学学报 >> 2022, Vol. 38 >> Issue (1): 2012083.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB202012083

所属专题: 石墨烯的功能与应用

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石墨烯在自供能传感系统中的应用

胡聪, 胡俊斌, 刘梦然, 周玉成, 戎家胜, 周建新()   

  • 收稿日期:2020-12-30 录用日期:2021-01-22 发布日期:2021-02-01
  • 通讯作者: 周建新 E-mail:zhoujx@nuaa.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:周建新,1981年出生。2007年获得南京大学博士,现为南京航空航天大学副研究员。主要研究方向:二维原子晶体材料与器件、纳智能材料器件
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFA0705400);国家自然科学基金项目(12072151);国家自然科学基金项目(51535005);中央高校基本科研业务费项目(NJ2020003);中央高校基本科研业务费项目(NZ2020001);江苏高校优势学科建设工程项目

Applications of Graphene in Self-Powered Sensing Systems

Cong Hu, Junbin Hu, Mengran Liu, Yucheng Zhou, Jiasheng Rong, Jianxin Zhou()   

  • Received:2020-12-30 Accepted:2021-01-22 Published:2021-02-01
  • Contact: Jianxin Zhou E-mail:zhoujx@nuaa.edu.cn
  • About author:Jianxin Zhou. Email: zhoujx@nuaa.edu.cn; Tel.: +86-25-84895827
  • Supported by:
    the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2019YFA0705400);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(12072151);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51535005);the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China(NJ2020003);the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China(NZ2020001);the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions

摘要:

随着现代社会智能化的加速发展,传感系统中传感器的数量、密度和分布范围不断增加,传统的供能方式难以满足如此复杂多变的传感器供能需求,从周围环境中收集能量并转化为电能的自供能传感器件是解决这一难题的有效途径。石墨烯不仅具有优异的传感性能,而且在各种能源器件中有广泛的应用,这为基于石墨烯的自供能传感器件设计提供了便利。近年来,人们已经研究和发展了多种多样的石墨烯自供能传感器件。本文基于自供能器件的基本能量供给原理,包括电化学供能、光伏供能、摩擦电供能、水伏供能以及热电、压电、热释电等其它供能,分别介绍了石墨烯在自供能传感器件中的应用,并展望了基于石墨烯的自供能传感器件的未来发展、挑战和前景。

关键词: 石墨烯, 自供能, 传感器, 柔性电子, 智能系统

Abstract:

The advancements in the development of intelligent systems have resulted in an increase in the number, density, and distribution range of sensors. Traditional energy supply methods cannot meet the demands of the complex and variable sensor systems. However, the emergence of self-powered sensing devices that generate energy from their surroundings has provided a solution to this problem. Graphene, which has both an excellent sensing performance and wide range of applications in energy devices, facilitates the design of self-powered sensing systems. In recent years, several graphene-based self-powered sensors have been developed to overcome the design limitations of sensing systems. In this review, these sensors are divided into five categories according to their different energy conversion methods. (1) Self-powered by the electrochemical effect. The traditional electrochemical battery can be designed as a flexible structure that is responsive to external stimuli, including pressure, deformation, humidity, light, and temperature. It is an effective, stable, self-driving sensor, with working life determined by the amount of oxidizing/reducing agent present and the reaction rate. Flexible electrochemical cells with a high strain sensitivity ((I/I0)/ε = 124) and stretchability (2000%) have been achieved. (2) Self-powered by the photovoltaic effect. Graphene can form a Schottky junction when coupled with various semiconducting materials, such as Si, GaAs, MoS2, and some of their nanostructures. In these heterostructures, the van der Waals interface exhibits a Schottky barrier, which can separate photogenerated electron-hole pairs without external bias. Graphene-based Schottky junctions have been widely used as self-powered photodetectors with extremely high responsivities (~149 A·W-1). (3) Self-powered by the triboelectric effect. The contact and separation of two surfaces can result in the separation of charges due to the difference in electron affinities of the materials. This results in an induced electrostatic force between the electrodes, thereby driving the flow of electrons in an external circuit. Triboelectric nanogenerators can realize self-driving touch/pressure sensing and are used for several applications, including touch screens, neural finger skin, and electronic skin. (4) Self-powered by the hydrovoltaic effect. Graphene can interact with water at the solid-liquid interface and generate an electrical signal. Therefore, graphene-based hydrovoltaic devices can constitute very simple self-driving sensors that are efficient in determining fluid flow, solution concentration, and humidity, among others. (5) Self-powered by other effects, such as the thermoelectric effect, piezoelectric effect, or pyroelectric effect. Although the electrical signals generated by these effects are relatively weak, they can be used for some special applications, such as temperature or infrared sensors. Finally, we discuss the future developments, challenges, and prospects of graphene-based self-powered sensing devices and systems.

Key words: Graphene, Self-powered, Sensor, Flexible electronics, Intelligent system

MSC2000: 

  • O647