Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin. ›› 2017, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (2): 377-385.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201610272

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3D SnO2/Graphene Hydrogel Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery

Xue-Jun BAI1,*(),Min HOU1,Chan LIU1,Biao WANG2,Hui CAO1,3,Dong WANG1,3   

  1. 1 Shanghai Aerospace Power Technology LTD, Shanghai 201615, P. R. China
    2 College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, P. R. China
    3 Shanghai Institute of Space Power Source, Shanghai 200245, P. R. China
  • Received:2016-09-26 Published:2017-01-12
  • Contact: Xue-Jun BAI
  • Supported by:
    the Shanghai Science and Technology Innovation Plan, China(15DZ1201001,16111106001)


With the widespread use of mobile electronic devices and increasing demand for electric energy storage in the transportation and energy sectors, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become a major research and development focus in recent years. The current generation of LIBs use graphite as the anode material, which has a theoretical capacity of 372 mAh·g-1. Tin-based materials are considered promising anode materials for next-generation LIBs because of their favorable working voltage and unsurpassed theoretical specific capacity. However, overcoming the rapid storage capacity degradation of tin caused by its large volumetric changes (>200%) during cycling remains a major challenge to the successful implementation of such materials. In this paper, SnO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3 nm were used as active materials in LIB anodes and a threedimensional (3D) graphene hydrogel (GH) was used as a buffer to decrease the volumetric change. Typically, SnCl4 aqueous solution (18 mL, 6.4 mmol·L-1) and graphene oxide (GO) suspension (0.5% (w, mass fraction), 2 mL) were mixed together via sonication. NaOH aqueous solution (11.4 mmol·L-1, 40 mL) was slowly added and then the mixture was stirred for 2 h to obtain a stable suspension. Vitamin C (VC, 80 mg) was then added as a reductant. The mixture was kept at 80℃ for 24 h to reduce and self-assemble. The resulting black block was washed repeatedly with distilled deionized water and freeze-dried to obtain SnO2-GH. In this composite, GH provides large specific surface area for efficient loading (54% (w)) and uniform distribution of nanoparticles. SnO2-GH delivered a capacity of 500 mAh·g-1 at 5000 mA·g-1 and 865 mAh·g-1 at 50 mA·g-1 after rate cycling.This outstanding electrochemical performance is attributed to the 3D structure of GH, which provides large internal space to accommodate volumetric changes, an electrically conducting structural porous network, a large amount of lithium-ion diffusion channels, fast electron transport kinetics, and excellent penetration of electrolyte solution. This study demonstrates that 3D GH is a potential carbon matrix for LIBs.

Key words: Graphene hydrogel, SnO2, Lithium-ion battery, Anode, Three-dimension


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