Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin. ›› 2022, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (11): 2204057.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB202204057

Special Issue: Special Issue of Emerging Scientists

• REVIEW • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Research and Application of Fast-Charging Graphite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Xiaobo Ding, Qianhui Huang, Xunhui Xiong()   

  • Received:2022-04-29 Accepted:2022-06-06 Published:2022-06-13
  • Contact: Xunhui Xiong E-mail:esxxiong@scut.edu.cn
  • About author:Xunhui Xiong, Email: esxxiong@scut.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51874142);the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(2019JQ09);the Tip-top Scientific and Technical Innovative Youth Talents of Guangdong Special Support Program(2019TQ05L903);the Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by CAST(2019QNRC001)

Abstract:

Driven by the excessive environmental pollution caused by the over-use of non-renewable fossil-derived energy, renewable energy and electrochemical energy storage devices have made great progress in the past decades. Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion batteries, have the advantages of high capacity, long life cycle, and good safety performance; therefore, they have been used in various applications. For example, economical and environment-friendly electric vehicles have recently taken up increasing market share. However, when compared with vehicles propelled using fossil-derived energy, the slow charging speed of electric vehicles has always restricted their further promotion. The realization of rapid charging for electric vehicles can alleviate the high-pressure usage of charging piles as well as increase the application and market share of electric vehicles. Therefore, it is important to develop high-performance lithium-ion batteries with rapid charge and discharge capacities. The fast-charging capacity of lithium-ion batteries is limited by the slow migration of lithium ions in the electrode and the electrode/electrolyte interface. Therefore, the key to developing fast-charging lithium-ion batteries lies in the successful design of suitable electrode materials. Because of its low cost and excellent electrochemical performance, graphite has been widely used to develop the cathode of lithium-ion batteries. However, the migration of lithium ions in graphite is slow, resulting in large polarization during the high-current charge and discharge processes. In addition, the low lithium intercalation potential of graphite leads to lithium precipitation during fast charging, which can decrease the electrochemical performance and cause potential safety hazards. Therefore, graphite must be improved to meet the needs of such fast-charging devices. In this article, we systematically introduce the research progress made in recent years within the scope of rapid-charging improvement of graphite(-based) cathodes and then highlight the modification strategies for graphite with the goal of achieving functional coating, desired morphological and structural design, optimized electrolyte properties, and an improved charging protocol. Additionally, this article evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of the modification strategies as well as their application prospects. The scheme of functional coating for modifying graphite must simplify the process and improve production efficiency to meet the needs of industrial development. Morphology design should ensure satisfactory initial Coulomb efficiency, while the improvement of the electrolyte properties and optimization of the charging protocol need to consider the commercialization costs. Finally, this paper proposes further evaluation of the effects of the modification strategies based on soft-pack or cylindrical batteries to strengthen the commercialization prospect of the modification strategies.

Key words: Graphite, Negative pole, Fast charging, Lithium ion battery

MSC2000: 

  • O646