Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin. ›› 2022, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (11): 2205005.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB202205005

Special Issue: Special Issue of Emerging Scientists

• REVIEW • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Fluorinated Solvents for Lithium Metal Batteries

Zixu He, Yawei Chen, Fanyang Huang, Yulin Jie, Xinpeng Li, Ruiguo Cao, Shuhong Jiao()   

  • Received:2022-05-03 Accepted:2022-05-27 Published:2022-06-06
  • Contact: Shuhong Jiao E-mail:jiaosh@ustc.edu.cn
  • About author:Shuhong Jiao, Email: jiaosh@ustc.edu.cn; Tel.: +86-551-63607418
  • Supported by:
    the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFA206703);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51902304);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(52072358);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(U21A2082);the Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China(1908085ME122);the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China(WK2060140026)

Abstract:

Lithium metal batteries, which use lithium metal as the anode, have attracted tremendous research interest in recent years, owing to their high energy density and potential for future energy storage applications. Despite their advantages such as high energy density, the safety concerns and short lifespan significantly impede their practical applications in transportation and electronic devices. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to overcoming these problems, including materials design, interface modification, and electrolyte engineering. Among these strategies, electrolyte regulation plays a key role in improving the efficiency, stability, and safety of lithium metal anodes. As an important class of electrolyte components, fluorinated solvents, which can decompose to form LiF-rich interphase layers on both anode and cathode, have been proven to enhance the stability of lithium metal anodes and improve the oxidative stability of the electrolytes. Meanwhile, the spatial structure of fluorinated solvents, such as the number and sites of fluorine atoms, can influence the physicochemical properties of the electrolytes and the compositions/structure of the solid-electrolyte interphase, which eventually dictates the cycling performance of Li metal batteries. Recently, many fluorinated solvents with different molecular structures have been designed to regulate the solvation structure of electrolytes, and these solvents exhibit novel electrochemical properties in lithium metal batteries. However, there are few comprehensive reviews that summarize the fluorinated solvents used in Li metal batteries and discuss their functions in electrolytes and their physicochemical properties. This review summarizes the novel fluorinated solvents used in lithium metal batteries in recent years, which have been classified into three parts: diluents, traditional solvents, and novel molecules, based on their functions in the electrolytes. In every part, the understanding of the interactions between fluorinated solvents and Li ions, the decomposition mechanism of fluorinated solvents at the interface of the electrode, the functions of fluorinated solvents in the electrolytes, and the structure-activity relationship between the fluorinated solvents and battery performance have been comprehensively summarized and discussed. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of fluorinated solvents have been discussed, and the importance of precisely controlling the number of fluorine atoms and the structure of fluorinated solvents has been emphasized. At the end of this review, a perspective for designing new fluorinated solvents has been proposed. We believe that this review can provide insights on designing novel fluorinated solvents for high-performance Li metal batteries.

Key words: Lithium metal battery, Fluorinated electrolyte, Fluorinated solvent, Solvation structure, Solid electrolyte interphase

MSC2000: 

  • O646