Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin. ›› 2011, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (11): 2605-2612.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB20111116

• ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND NEW ENERGY • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Self-supporting Macroscopic Carbon/Ni-Fiber Hybrid Electrodes Prepared by Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Various Carbonaceous Compounds and Their Capacitive Deionization Performance

WANG Xi-Wen1, JIANG Fang-Ting2, SUO Quan-Ling1, FANG Yu-Zhu2, LU Yong2   

  1. 1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051, P. R. China;
    2. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, P. R. China
  • Received:2011-05-25 Revised:2011-08-26 Published:2011-10-27
  • Contact: SUO Quan-Ling, LU Yong E-mail:szj@mail.impu.edu.cn; ylu@chem.ecnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:

    The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (20973063, 21076083) and Shanghai Rising-Star Program, China (10HQ1400800).

Abstract: We prepared a series of self-supported macroscopic C/Ni-fiber hybrid electrodes by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) using methane, ethylene, ethanol and n-butanol as carbon sources to embed carbon onto a three-dimensional network of sinter-locked conductive 8 μm-nickel fibers. For the as-prepared hybrid electrodes, the Ni-microfibrous network serves as a current collector and the carbons as ion storage media while the macroporous void space serves as an electrolyte reservoir. We characterized the hybrid electrodes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 isothermal adsorptiondesorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The desalination performance of the C/Ni-fiber hybrids was evaluated as electrodes in a capacitive deionization system. The carbon morphology is dependent on the carbonaceous compounds used in CCVD: carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with fishbone-like structure, CNTs with inclined graphene layers parallel to the tube axis, rod-like carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and worm-like CNFs for ethylene, methane, n-butanol and ethanol. The desalination performance of these hybrid electrodes with respect to the carbonaceous compounds decreases as follows: ethylene>n-butanol>methane>ethanol, which correlates with their electrochemical features, pore structures and their carbon nanostructures. The hybrid electrodes obtained using ethylene as the carbon source gave a maximum electrosorption capacity of 159 μmol·g-1 using a direct current voltage of 1.2 V and a 100 mg·L-1 NaCl aqueous solution as raw water.

Key words: Carbon nanotube, Carbon fiber, Metal fiber, Chemical vapor deposition, Self-supporting electrode, Capacitive deionization

MSC2000: 

  • O646