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Acta Phys. Chim. Sin.  2013, Vol. 29 Issue (05): 966-972    DOI: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201302281
Effect of Carbon Aerogel Activation on Electrode Lithium Insertion Performance
LIU Nian-Ping, SHEN Jun, GUAN Da-Yong, LIU Dong, ZHOU Xiao-Wei, LI Ya-Jie
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Institute of Physical Science and Engineering of Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, P. R. China
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Carbon aerogels have received much recent attention as high-capacity insertion anodes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Carbon aerogels were synthesized from resorcinol-formaldehyde with a sodium carbonate catalyst via a sol-gel process, ambient drying, carbonization, and activation. Gaseous CO2-activated carbon aerogels combined the advantages of amorphous and nanoporous structures, with richer porous structures and more lithium insertion points than conventional carbon aerogels. Microporosity analysis indicated a high surface area, and the pore volume effectively retained lithium and its compounds. The mesoporosity allowed the mass transport of Li+ and conferred high ionic conductivity to the electrode. These improvements led to a higher lithium insertion capacity, and the activated carbon aerogel exhibited a specific surface area of 2032 m2·g-1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an amorphous structure and nanoparticle network skeleton, respectively. Lithium insertion capacities of 3870 and 352 mAh·g-1 were exhibited in the 1st and 50th galvanostatic discharge-charge (50 mA·g-1) cycles, respectively. This corresponded to irreversible capacities of 658 and 333 mAh·g-1, respectively. This work demonstrates the feasibility of CO2 activation for improving lithium insertion performance in carbon aerogels, and provides preparation and optimization procedures for other porous electrode materials.

Key wordsCarbon aerogel      Sol-gel      Gas activation      Amorphous carbon      Lithium ion battery     
Received: 12 November 2012      Published: 28 February 2013
MSC2000:  O646  

The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51072137, 50802064, 11074189), Key Projects in the National Science & Technology Pillar Program, China (2009BAC62B02), and Shanghai Committee of Science and Technology, China (11nm0501600).

Cite this article:

LIU Nian-Ping, SHEN Jun, GUAN Da-Yong, LIU Dong, ZHOU Xiao-Wei, LI Ya-Jie. Effect of Carbon Aerogel Activation on Electrode Lithium Insertion Performance. Acta Phys. Chim. Sin., 2013, 29(05): 966-972.

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