Please wait a minute...
Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin.  2014, Vol. 30 Issue (9): 1706-1712    DOI: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201406272
Preparation of Fe-Doped Graphitic Carbon Nitride with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity
JIN Rui-Rui, YOU Ji-Guang, ZHANG Qian, LIU Dan, HU Shao-Zheng, GUI Jian-Zhou
Division of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Environment, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001, Liaoning Province, P. R. China
Download:   PDF(1053KB) Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      


A series of Fe-doped graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) photocatalysts were prepared using ferric nitrate and melamine as precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fouriertransform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to identify changes in the characteristics caused by coordination of N atoms in the structural units of g-C3N4. The results indicate that embedded Fe3+ changed the optical properties, affected the energy band structure, and increased the electron/hole separation rate. The activities of the Fe3+-doped g-C3N4 catalysts were tested in the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light. The degradation rate of RhB over Fe3+-doped g-C3N4 was 99.7% in 120 min. The rate constant for Fe3+-doped g-C3N4 was 3.2 times as high as that of pure g-C3N4. Disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate, tert-butyl alcohol, and 1,4-benzoquinone were used as hole (hVB+), hydroxyl radical (·OH), and superoxide radical (O2) scavengers, respectively, to investigate the possible mechanism.

Key wordsGraphitic carbon nitride      Photocatalysis      Visible light      RhB degrdatiaon      Fe doping     
Received: 08 May 2014      Published: 27 June 2014
MSC2000:  O641  

The project was supported by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (NCET-11-1011), National Natural Science Foundation of China (21103077), and Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province, China (201202123).

Corresponding Authors: HU Shao-Zheng, GUI Jian-Zhou     E-mail:;
Cite this article:

JIN Rui-Rui, YOU Ji-Guang, ZHANG Qian, LIU Dan, HU Shao-Zheng, GUI Jian-Zhou. Preparation of Fe-Doped Graphitic Carbon Nitride with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2014, 30(9): 1706-1712.

URL:     OR

(1) Liu, A. Y.; Cohen, M. L. Science 1989, 245, 841. doi: 10.1126/science.245.4920.841
(2) Teter, D. M.; Hemley, R. J. Science 1996, 271, 53. doi: 10.1126/science.271.5245.53
(3) Wang, X. C.; Maeda, K.; Thomas, A.; Takanabe, K.; Xin, G.; Carlsson, J. M.; Domen, K.; Antonietti, M. Nat. Mater. 2009, 8, 76. doi: 10.1038/nmat2317
(4) Yan, S. C.; Li, Z. S.; Zou, Z. G. Langmuir 2010, 26, 3894. doi: 10.1021/la904023j
(5) Liu, G.; Niu, P.; Sun, C.; Smith, S. C.; Chen, Z.; Lu, G. Q.; Cheng, H. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 11642. doi: 10.1021/ja103798k
(6) Wang, Y.; Di, Y.; Antonietti, M.; Li, H.; Chen, C.;Wang, X. C. Chem. Mater. 2010, 22, 5119. doi: 10.1021/cm1019102
(7) Chen, X.; Takanabe, K.; Domen, K.; Hou, Y.; Fu, X.; Antonietti, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 1680. doi: 10.1021/ja809307s
(8) Di, Y.;Wang, X. C.; Thomas, A.; Antonietti, M. ChemCatChem 2010, 2, 834. doi: 10.1002/cctc.201000057
(9) Yang, Y.; Guo, Y.; Liu, F.; Yuan, X.; Guo, Y.; Zhang, S.; Guo, W.; Huo, M. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 2013, 142, 828.
(10) Huang, L.; Xu, H.; Li, Y.; Li, H.; Cheng, X.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Cai, G. Dalton Trans. 2013, 42, 8606. doi: 10.1039/c3dt00115f
(11) Zhou, X.; Jin, B.; Chen, R.; Peng, F.; Fang, Y. Mater. Res. Bull. 2013, 48, 1447. doi: 10.1016/j.materresbull.2012.12.038
(12) Li, Q. Y.; Zong, L. L.; Xing, Y. Y.;Wang, X. D.; Yu, L. G.; Yang, J. J. Adv. Mater. 2013, 5, 1316. doi: 10.1166/sam.2013.1589
(13) Huang, L. Y.; Xu, H.; Zhang, R. X.; Cheng, X. N.; Xia, J. X.; Xu, Y. G.; Li, H. M. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2014, 283, 25.
(14) Feng, X. P.; Zhang, H.; Hang, Z. S. J. Funct. Mater. Devic. 2012, 18, 214. [冯西平, 张宏, 杭祖圣. 功能材料与器件学报, 2012, 18, 214.]
(15) Yang, X. H.;Wang, H. J.; Lu, X. F.; Cui, D. L.; Zhang, S. Y. Acta Chimica Sinica 2009, 67, 1166. [杨晓晖, 王红军, 陆希峰, 崔得良, 张树永. 化学学报, 2009, 67, 1166.]
(16) Wang, X. C.; Chen, X. F.; Thomas, A.; Fu, X. Z.; Antonietti, M. Adv. Mater. 2009, 21, 1609. doi: 10.1002/adma.v21:16
(17) Tonda, S.; Kumar, S.; Kandula, S.; Shanker, V. J. Mater. Chem. A 2014, 2, 6772. doi: 10.1039/c3ta15358d
(18) Li, F. B.; Li, X. Z.; Hou, M. F.; Cheah, K.W.; Choy,W. C. H. Appl. Catal. A 2005, 285, 181. doi: 10.1016/j.apcata.2005.02.025
(19) Pan, C. S.; Zhu, Y. F. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 5570.
(20) Wang, D.; Duan, Y.; Luo, Q.; Li, X.; Bao, L. Desalination 2011, 270, 174. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2010.11.042
(21) Wang, X. C.; Chen, X.; Thomas, A.; Fu, X.; Antonietti, M. Adv. Mater. 2009, 21, 1609. doi: 10.1002/adma.v21:16
(22) Bojdys, M. J.; Müller, J. O.; Antonietti, M.; Thomas, A. Chem. Eur. J. 2008, 14, 8177. doi: 10.1002/chem.v14:27
(23) Li, X. F.; Zhang, J.; Shen, L. H.; Ma, Y. M.; Lei,W.W.; Cui, Q. L.; Zou, G. T. Appl. Phys. A 2009, 94, 387. doi: 10.1007/s00339-008-4816-4
(24) Anandan, S.; Kathiravan, K.; Murugesan, V.; Ikuma, Y. Catal. Commun. 2009, 10, 1014. doi: 10.1016/j.catcom.2008.12.054
(25) Ge, L.; Han, C. Appl. Catal. B: Environ 2012, 117, 268.
(26) Garade, A. C.; Bharadwaj, M.; Bhagwat, S. V.; Athawale, A. A.; Rode, C. V. Catal. Commun. 2009, 10, 485. doi: 10.1016/j.catcom.2008.10.044
(27) Park, Y.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, K. T.; Jeon, K. Adv. Mater. 2009, 21, 4467. doi: 10.1002/adma.v21:44
(28) Cong, Y.; Zhang, J.; Chen, F.; Anpo, M. J. Phys. Chem. C 2007, 111, 6976. doi: 10.1021/jp0685030
(29) Li, X. Y.;Wang, D. S.; Cheng, G. X.; Luo, Q. Z.; An, J.;Wang, Y. H. Appl. Catal. B: Environ 2008, 81, 267. doi: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2007.12.022
(30) Liu, G.; Niu, P.; Yin, L. C.; Cheng, H. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 9070. doi: 10.1021/ja302897b
(31) Zhang, S. Q.; Yang, Y. X.; Guo, Y. N.; Guo,W.;Wang, M.; Guo, Y. H.; Huo, M. X. J. Hazard. Mater. 2013, 261, 235. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.07.025

[1] Shaohai LI,Bo WENG,Kangqiang LU,Yijun XU. Improving the Efficiency of Carbon Quantum Dots as a Visible Light Photosensitizer by Polyamine Interfacial Modification[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2018, 34(6): 708-718.
[2] Ruo-Lin CHENG,Xi-Xiong JIN,Xiang-Qian FAN,Min WANG,Jian-Jian TIAN,Ling-Xia ZHANG,Jian-Lin SHI. Incorporation of N-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide into Pyridine-Copolymerized g-C3N4 for Greatly Enhanced H2 Photocatalytic Evolution[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2017, 33(7): 1436-1445.
[3] Hai-Long HU,Sheng WANG,Mei-Shun HOU,Fu-Sheng LIU,Tian-Zhen WANG,Tian-Long LI,Qian-Qian DONG,Xin ZHANG. Preparation of p-CoFe2O4/n-CdS by Hydrothermal Method and Its Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production Activity[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2017, 33(3): 590-601.
[4] Jin BAI,Xin CHEN,Zhao-Yi XI,Xiang WANG,Qiang LI,Shao-Zheng HU. Influence of Solvothermal Post-Treatment on Photochemical Nitrogen Conversion to Ammonia with g-C3N4 Catalyst[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2017, 33(3): 611-619.
[5] Ming XIAO,Zai-Yin HUANG,Huan-Feng TANG,Sang-Ting LU,Chao LIU. Facet Effect on Surface Thermodynamic Properties and In-situ Photocatalytic Thermokinetics of Ag3PO4[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2017, 33(2): 399-406.
[6] ZHANG Hao, LI Xin-Gang, CAI Jin-Meng, WANG Ya-Ting, WU Mo-Qing, DING Tong, MENG Ming, TIAN Ye. Effect of the Amount of Hydrofluoric Acid on the Structural Evolution and Photocatalytic Performance of Titanium Based Semiconductors[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2017, 33(10): 2072-2081.
[7] Yang CHEN,Xiao-Yan YANG,Peng ZHANG,Dao-Sheng LIU,Jian-Zhou GUI,Hai-Long PENG,Dan LIU. Noble Metal-Supported on Rod-Like ZnO Photocatalysts with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2017, 33(10): 2082-2091.
[8] Wei-Tao QIU,Yong-Chao HUANG,Zi-Long WANG,Shuang XIAO,Hong-Bing JI,Ye-Xiang TONG. Effective Strategies towards High-Performance Photoanodes for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2017, 33(1): 80-102.
[9] Yang LU. Recent Progress in Crystal Facet Effect of TiO2 Photocatalysts[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2016, 32(9): 2185-2196.
[10] Fei ZHAO,Lin-Qi SHI,Jia-Bao CUI,Yan-Hong LIN. Photogenerated Charge-Transfer Properties of Au-Loaded ZnO Hollow Sphere Composite Materials with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2016, 32(8): 2069-2076.
[11] Dong-Mei LIANG,Xia LENG,Yu-Chen MA. Quasiparticle Band Structures and Optical Properties of Graphitic Carbon Nitrides[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2016, 32(8): 1967-1976.
[12] Yue WANG,Quan JIANG,Jie-Kun SHANG,Jie XU,Yong-Xin LI. Advances in the Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbon Nitride Materials[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2016, 32(8): 1913-1928.
[13] Ying-Shuang MENG,Yi AN,Qian GUO,Ming GE. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Performance of a Magnetic AgBr/Ag3PO4/ZnFe2O4 Composite Catalyst[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2016, 32(8): 2077-2083.
[14] Bang-De LUO,Xian-Qiang XIONG,Yi-Ming XU. Improved Photocatalytic Activity for Phenol Degradation of Rutile TiO2 on the Addition of CuWO4 and Possible Mechanism[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2016, 32(7): 1758-1764.
[15] Kai-Jian ZHU,Wen-Qing YAO,Yong-Fa ZHU. Preparation of Bismuth Phosphate Photocatalyst with High Dispersion by Refluxing Method[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2016, 32(6): 1519-1526.