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ISSN 1000-6818CN 11-1892/O6CODEN WHXUEU
Acta Phys Chim Sin >> 2017,Vol.33>> Issue(2)>> 305-313     doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201611012         中文摘要
Design and Preparation of Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors with High Specific Capacitance
WU Zhong1,2, ZHANG Xin-Bo1
1 State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Changchun 130022, P. R. China;
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
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Supercapacitors (SCs) have been explored as one of the electrical sources because of their fast charge and discharge rates, good safety, and long cycle life. However, the limited energy densities of SCs hinder their further application. Thus, current research on SCs focuses on increasing their energy density. Enhancing specific capacitance is an effective way to increase energy density. In this review, we describe several approaches to achieve superior electrochemical properties by optimizing electrode materials and electrolytes. Considering electrode materials, their electrochemical performance is related to their specific surface area, pore structure, and electroconductivity. On one hand, the optimization of specific surface area and pore structure can increase their content of exposed active sites as well as electrolyte ion conductivity, which is beneficial for improved specific capacitance. On the other hand, enhanced electroconductivity leads to higher specific capacitance. The specific capacitances of electric double-layer capacitors and pseudocapacitors have been increased by optimizing carbon-based materials and metal hydroxides/oxides, respectively. Moreover, specific capacitance can be further enhanced by adding a redox mediator to the electrolyte as a pseudocapacitive source. This review offers perspectives to aid the development of next-generation supercapacitors with high specific capacitance.



Keywords: Supercapacitor   Specific capacitance   Electrode material   Electrolyte   ELectrical doublelayer capacitor   Pseudocapacitor  
Received: 2016-07-07 Accepted: 2016-11-01 Publication Date (Web): 2016-11-01
Corresponding Authors: ZHANG Xin-Bo Email: xbzhang@ciac.ac.cn

Fund: The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21422108, 21271168, 51472232).

Cite this article: WU Zhong, ZHANG Xin-Bo. Design and Preparation of Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors with High Specific Capacitance[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2017,33 (2): 305-313.    doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201611012

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57. XUE Rong, YAN Jing-Wang, TIAN Ying, YI Bao-Lian.Lanthanum Doped Manganese Dioxide/Carbon Nanotube Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2011,27(10): 2340-2346
58. LU Xiang-Jun, DOU Hui, YANG Su-Dong, HAO Liang, ZHANG Fang, ZHANG Xiao-Gang.Fabrication and Electrochemical Capacitive Behavior of Freestanding Graphene/Polyaniline Nanofibre Film[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2011,27(10): 2333-2339
59. CAO Guo-Fei, LIAO Yi, ZHANG Xiao-Hua, CHEN Jin-Hua.Preparation and Characterization of Peasecod-Based Activated Carbons as Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2011,27(07): 1679-1684
60. ZHOU Jin, LI Wen, XING Wei, ZHUO Shu-Ping.Capacitive Performance of Tunable Ordered Mesoporous Carbons in Organic and H2SO4 Electrolytes[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2011,27(06): 1431-1438
61. LI Zhao, XU Ju-Liang, LI Xu-Yan, GUO Li-Fang, LI Jin, JIANG Yi-Ming.Preparation of Manganese Dioxide for Electrodes of Supercapacitors Based on Duplex Stainless Steel[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2011,27(06): 1424-1430
62. MI Juan, WANG Yu-Ting, GAO Peng-Cheng, LI Wen-Cui.Effects of Thermal Treatment on the Electrochemical Behavior of Manganese Dioxide[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2011,27(04): 893-899
63. YU Li-Qiu, CHEN Shu-Li, CHANG Sha, LI Yun-Hu, GAO Yin-Yi, WANG Gui-Ling CAO Dian-Xue.Supercapacitance of NiCo2O4 Nanowire Arrays Grown on Nickel Foam[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2011,27(03): 615-619
64. LI Wen, ZHOU Jin, XING Wei, ZHUO Shu-Ping, Lü Yi-Min.Preparation of Microporous Carbon Using a Zeolite HY Template and Its Capacitive Performance[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2011,27(03): 620-626
65. SUN Gang-Wei, SONG Wen-Hua, LIU Xiao-Jun, QIAO Wen-Ming, LING Li-Cheng.Asymmetric Capacitance Behavior Based on the Relationship between Ion Dimension and Pore Size[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2011,27(02): 449-454
66. TIAN Ying, YAN Jing-Wang, XUE Rong, YI Bao-Lian.Influence of Electrolyte Concentration and Temperature on the Capacitance of Activated Carbon[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2011,27(02): 479-485
67. ZHANG Hai-Jun, ZHANG Xiao-Gang, YUAN Chang-Zhou, GAO Bo, SUN Kang, FU Qing-Bin, LU Xiang-Jun, JIANG Jian-Chun.Preparation of Water Soluble Chitosan-Based Porous Carbon/NiO Composites and Their Electrochemical Capacitive Behavior[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2011,27(02): 455-460
68. ZHANG Fang, YUAN Chang-Zhou, ZHANG Xiao-Gang, ZHANG Luo-Jiang, XU Ke.5-Sulfosalicylic Acid-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis and Supercapacitive Properties of Co-Ni Layered Double Hydroxides[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2010,26(12): 3175-3180
69. ZHANG Xiao-Bo, CHEN Ming-Hai, ZHANG Xiao-Gang, LI Qing-Wen.Preparation of Porous Carbon Nanofibers by Electrospinning and Their Electrochemical Capacitive Behavior[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2010,26(12): 3169-3174
70. LI Huan-Zhi, TANG Ya-Wen, LU Tian-Hong.Effect of NH4+ on the Electrocatalytic Performance of Carbon Supported Pd Catalyst for Formic Acid Oxidation[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2010,26(12): 3199-3202
71. TIAN Ying, YAN Jing-Wang, LIU Xiao-Xue, XUE Rong, YI Bao-Lian.Electrochemical Capacitance of Composites with MnOx Loaded on the Surface of Activated Carbon Electrodes[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2010,26(08): 2151-2157
72. LI Li-Min, LIU En-Hui, LI Jian, YANG Yan-Jing, SHEN Hai-Jie, HUANG Zheng-Zheng, XIANG Xiao-Xia.Polyaniline-Based Carbon for a Supercapacitor Electrode[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2010,26(06): 1521-1526
73. JI Qian-Qian, GUO Pei-Zhi, ZHAO Xiu-Song.Preparation of Chitosan-Based Porous Carbons and Their Application as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2010,26(05): 1254-1258
74. ZHAO Di, HUANG Qing, JIN Xian-Bo, WEI Xian-Jun, CHEN George Z..Capacitance at the Electrode/Ionic Liquid Interface[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2010,26(05): 1239-1248
75. ZANG Yang, HAO Xiao-Gang, WANG Zhong-De, ZHANG Zhong-Lin, LIU Shi-Bin.Copolymerization and Capacitive Performance of Composite Carbon Nanotubes/Polyaniline/Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Films[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2010,26(02): 291-298
76. PANG Xu, MA Zheng-Qing, ZUO Lie.Sn Doped MnO2 Electrode Material for Supercapacitors[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2009,25(12): 2433-2437
77. FU Qing-Bin, GAO Bo, SU Ling-Hao, YUAN Chang-Zhou, LU Xiang-Jun, ZHANG Xiao-Gang.Preparation of Polypyrrole/Benzenesulfonic Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Induced by Hydrogen Bonding and Their Electrochemical Behavior[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2009,25(11): 2199-2204
78. SUN Zhe, LIU Kai-Yu, ZHANG Hai-Feng, LI Ao-Sheng, XU Xiao-Cun.Study on Meso-C/MnO2 Asymmetric Supercapacitors[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2009,25(10): 1991-1997
79. TAN Xiao-Lan, CHENG Xin-Qun, MA Yu-Lin, ZUO Peng-Jian, YIN Ge-Ping.Film Formation and Cycleability of LiBOB-Based Electrolyte[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2009,25(10): 1967-1971
80. FU Mao-Hua, HUANG Ke-Long, LIU Su-Qin, LIU Jian-Sheng, LI Yong-Kun.Effect of Lithium Difluoro(oxalato)borate on the High-Temperature Performance of LiFePO4/Graphite Batteries[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2009,25(10): 1985-1990
81. GAO Hong-Quan, LAI Yan-Qing, ZHANG Zhi-An, LIU Ye-Xiang.Electrochemical Behaviors of New Lithium Salt LiBC2O4F2 in EC+DMC Solvents[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2009,25(05): 905-910
82. JIANG Qi, ZHAO Xiao-Feng, HUANG Bin, DU Bing, ZHAO Yong.Effect of the Activated Carbon Reactivation on Its Electrochemical Capacitance[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2009,25(04): 757-761
83. DU Bing, JIANG Qi, ZHAO Xiao-Feng, LIN Sun-Zhong, MU Pei-Shan, ZHAO Yong.Preparation of PPy/CNTs Composite Based on the Electrostatic Absorption Effect[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2009,25(03): 513-518
84. CHEN Li; ZHANG Xiao-Gang; YUAN Chang-Zhou; CHEN Sheng-Yao.Electrochemical Properties of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Manganese Oxide Synthesized by Interfacial Polymerization[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2009,25(02): 304-308
85. GAO Qiang; LIU Ya-Fei; HU Zhong-Hua; ZHENG Xiang-Wei; WEN Zu-Biao.Electrochemical Properties of Manganese Oxide Surface-Modified Activated Carbon Electrode Materials[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2009,25(02): 229-236
86. JIANG Qi; ZHANG Qian; DU Bing; ZHAO Xiao-Feng; ZHAO Yong.Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of CNTs-PANI Composite Material via Finite Field Polymerization[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2008,24(09): 1719-1723
87. LI Fan-Qun; LAI Yan-Qing; ZHANG Zhi-An; GAO Hong-Quan; YANG Juan.Electrochemical Behaviors of Et4NBF4+LiPF6/EC+PC+DMC Electrolyte on Graphite Electrode[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2008,24(07): 1302-1306
88. LIU Ya-Fei; HU Zhong-Hua; XU Kun; ZHENG Xiang-Wei; GAO Qiang.Surface Modification and Performance of Activated Carbon Electrode Material[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2008,24(07): 1143-1148
89. ZENG Wen-Wen; HUANG Ke-Long; YANG You-Ping; LIU Su-Qin; LIU Ren-Sheng.Solvothermal Synthesis and Capacitance Performance of Co3O4 with Different Morphologies[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2008,24(02): 263-268
90. YANG Jing; LIU Ya-Fei; CHEN Xiao-Mei; HU Zhong-Hua; ZHAO Guo-Hua.Carbon Electrode Material with High Densities of Energy and Power[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2008,24(01): 13-19
91. GUO Ying-Jun; CHEN Hui; QI Lu.Progress in Electrolyte Solutions for Lithium-ion Battery[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2007,23(Supp): 80-89
92. GUO Ying-Jun; LI Qi-Qi-Ge; NING Ying-Kun; QI Lu; TANG Hong-Wu.Performance of Liquid Electrolyte for Lithium-ion Battery at Elevated-temperature[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2007,23(Supp): 1-4
93. YIN Yu-Xin; JIN Zheng-Guo; HOU Feng.Fabrication and Properties of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Using Glycerol-DMSO-H2O Electrolyte[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2007,23(11): 1797-1802
94. YU Jun-Sheng; SUO Fan; LI Wei-Zhi; LIN Hui; LI Lu; JIANG Ya-Dong.Influence of Electrode Materials on the Performance of NPB/Alq3 Organic Electroluminescent Devices[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2007,23(11): 1821-1826
95. YANG Jian-Jun; HUANG Jun-Jie; JIANG Zhi-Yu.Supercapacitance of MnO2 Thin Film Electrodes Prepared Using Jet Printing Method[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2007,23(09): 1365-1369
96. LI Shu; LIU Lei; CAO Zhen; WANG Ji-Qiang; YAN Tian-Ying.Molecular Dynamics Simulation on a Eutectic Systemof LiTFSI/Urea[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2007,23(07): 983-986
97. WANG Jie; XU You-Long; SUN Xiao-Fei; XIAO Fang; MAO Sheng-Chun.Capacitance Properties of Porous Polypyrrole Thick Films Prepared Electrochemically by Multi-step Polymerization[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2007,23(06): 877-882
98. WANG Jie;XU You-Long;CHEN Xi;DU Xian-Feng;LI Xi-Fei.Effect of Doping Ions on Electrochemical Capacitance Properties of Polypyrrole Films[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2007,23(03): 299-304
99. WEN Yue-Hua; CAO Gao-Ping; CHENG Jie; YANG Yu-Sheng.Relationship between Electrolyte Ion and Double-layer Capacitance of Carbon Electrode[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2005,21(05): 494-498
100. XIAO Xue-Zhang; CHEN Chang-Pin; WANG Xin-Hua; CHEN Li-Xin; WANG Li; GAO Lin-Hui.Microstructure and Electrochemical Properties of Amorphous Mg-Fe-Ni Hydrogen Storage Electrode Material[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2005,21(05): 565-568
101. YANG Hong-Sheng; ZHOU Xiao; ZHANG Qing-Wu.Electrochemical Performances of Supercapacitor with Polyaniline Particles with Hierarchy as Active Electrode Material[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2005,21(04): 414-418
102. Su Yu-Zhi;Guo Shi-Heng;Xiao Yi-Zhi;Xiao Min;Yang Qi-Qin.Electrode Kinetics of 2,2’-diaminophenyloxydisulfide[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2004,20(05): 518-523
103. Jiang Qi;Lu Xiao-Ying;Zhao Yong;Yu Zuo-Long.Effect of Microstructure’s Change on Electrochemical Capacitance of Carbon Nanotubes[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2004,20(05): 546-549
104. Liu Xian-Ming;Zhang Yi-He;Zhang Xiao-Gang;Fu Shao-Yun.The Supercapacitive Properties of Ni-Ru Oxide Composites[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2004,20(04): 417-420
105. Deng Mei-Gen;Zhang Zhi-An;Hu Yong-Da;Wang Bin-Hua;Yang Bang-Chao.Effect of Activation and Surface Modification on the Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Supercapacitors[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2004,20(04): 432-435
106. Zhuang Xin-Guo;Yang Yu-Sheng;Ji You-Ju;Yang Dong-Ping;Tang Zhi-Yuan.The Influence of Porous Structure of Activated Carbons Used as Supercapacitor Electrode Materials on Its Properties[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2003,19(08): 689-694
107. Wang Xiao-Feng;Wang Da-Zhi;Liang Ji.Carbon Nanotube Capacitor Materials Loaded with Different Amounts of Ruthenium Oxide[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2003,19(06): 509-513
108. Zhang Bao-Hong;Zhang Na.Research on Nanophase MnO2 for Electrochemical Supercapacitor[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2003,19(03): 286-288
109. Wang Xiao-Feng;Wang Da-Zhi;Liang Ji;Liu Qing-Guo.Electrochemical Performance of RuO2/Active Carbon Composite Electrodes[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2002,18(08): 750-753
110. Liu Han-Xing;Zhou Zheng-Ping;Zhao Shi-Xi;Hao Hua;Ouyang Shi-Xi.Chemical Synthesis in Microwave Field of Electrode Materials Li-Mn-O System[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2001,17(08): 702-707
111. Guo Yuan;Li Yong-Jun;Xia Xi;Zhang Xiao-Gang;He Mao-Xia.Effect of Extrinsic Factors on the CPE Behavior of Film TiO2 Electrode[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2001,17(04): 372-376
112. Zhang Yu-Fen, Hou Yong, Wang Jian, Hong Cun-Mao.Crystal Structure and Hydrogen Absorption Properties of MmB5 Alloys[J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 1994,10(07): 644-647
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