Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) using commercial activated carbon as the cathode and graphite as the anode was assembled. The graphite anode was pre-lithiated by a fast, efficient internal short approach, which involved placing graphite in direct contact with lithium foil with electrolyte additive. The effect of pre-lithiation on the electrochemical performance of the LIC was investigated using a conventional Cu current collector (CCC) and pre-punched Cu current collector (PCC). The LICs containing a CCC and PCC were named CLIC and PLIC, respectively. Although the CCC had slightly higher pre-lithiation level and higher energy density in the CLIC, it suffered from a considerable decrease in performance at higher charge-discharge rates. Meanwhile, 90.0% of the initial capacity was maintained in the PLIC, whereas that of the CLIC was only 73.2% after 1000 cycles in the voltage range from 2.0 to 3.8 V. The CCC led to solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film expansion and Li metal plating with direct contact between graphite and lithium metal. The deposited thick SEI layer could weaken the adhesion of active materials and the current collector. Moreover, the expansion of the SEI layer itself produced electrical resistance and electrical contact loss between the active materials and current collector. In contrast, a thin, stable SEI layer formed on the surface of graphite after pre-lithiated using the PCC. Therefore, the PLIC showed better rate and cycle performance with the smaller self-discharge, voltage drop, and resistance than those of the CLIC.
Received: 20 October 2016
Published: 29 December 2016
Fund: the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973)(2014CB239701);National Natural Science Foundation of China(51372116);National Natural Science Foundation of China(51672128);Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China(BK20151468);Prospective Joint Research Project of Cooperative Innovation Fund of Jiangsu Province, China(BY-2015003-7);Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China(PAPD)
Jiang-Min JIANG,Ping NIE,Sheng-Yang DONG,Yu-Ting WU,Xiao-Gang ZHANG. Effect of Pre-Punched Current Collector for Lithiation on the Electrochemical Performance of Lithium-Ion Capacitor. Acta Physico-Chimica Sinca, 2017, 33(4): 780-786.
Fig 1 Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of (a) conventional Cu current collector (CCC); (b) pre-punched Cu current collector (PCC); (c) activated carbon (AC) cathode; (d) graphite anode
Fig 2 Schematic diagrams for pre-lithiation by CCC and PCC
Fig 3 (a, b) The first discharge-charge curve of graphite using CCC and PCC after 1 h pre-lithiation; (c, d) the galvanostatic charge-discharge curves at various current rates of CLIC and PLIC in 2.0-4.0 V; (e) cycling performance of CLIC and PLIC in 2.0-3.8 V
Fig 4 Ragone plots of the energy density vs power density of CLIC and PLIC
Fig 5 Images of (a) rest self-discharge after"activation" process; (b) voltage drop at various charge-discharge current densities
Table 1Voltage (IR) drop at various charge-discharge current densities
Fig 6 (a) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) curves for CLIC and PLIC at 4 V, (b) electric equivalent circuit used to fit the EIS
Fig 7 Photo of CLIC and PLIC after 1000 cycles
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