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Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin.  2018, Vol. 34 Issue (2): 123-139    DOI: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201707042
Special Issue: Special Issue for Highly Cited Researchers
REVIEW     
Applications of Nanotechnology for Physical Stimulus-Responsive Cancer Therapies
Xue-Jiao SONG,Zhuang LIU*()
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Abstract  

Multifunctional theranostic agents that are responsive to external physical stimuli such as light, magnetic field, ultrasound, radiofrequency, and X-rays have been widely explored for their use in physical stimulus-responsive therapies for cancer.Encouraging results in many preclinical animal experiments have been obtained; thus, this innovative strategy has gained great attention.Owing to the nontoxicity of physical stimulus-responsive agents and treatment specificity under particular external stimuli, physical stimulus-responsive cancer therapies provide greatly reduced toxicity and enhanced therapeutic efficiency compared with conventional chemotherapeutic agents.When combining physical stimulus-responsive therapies with other traditional therapeutics, synergistic antitumor effects via various mechanisms can be achieved.In this review, we will summarize the recent developments in physical stimulus-responsive therapies and discuss the important roles of nanoscale theranostic agents in these novel treatment modalities.



Key wordsPhysical stimulus-responsive      Theranostic agent      Cancer therapy      Multifunctional      Combination therapy     
Received: 25 May 2017      Published: 04 July 2017
MSC2000:  O641  
Fund:  ational Natural Science Foundation of China(51525203);Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of China(2016YFA0201200)
Corresponding Authors: Zhuang LIU     E-mail: zliu@suda.edu.cn
Cite this article:

Xue-Jiao SONG,Zhuang LIU. Applications of Nanotechnology for Physical Stimulus-Responsive Cancer Therapies. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2018, 34(2): 123-139.

URL:

http://www.whxb.pku.edu.cn/10.3866/PKU.WHXB201707042     OR     http://www.whxb.pku.edu.cn/Y2018/V34/I2/123

Fig 1 Ultra–small iron oxide doped polypyrrole nanoparticles for in vivo multimodal imaging guided photothermal therapy. (a) A schematic showing the fabrication process of IONP@PPy-PEG nanocomposite. (b) T2–weighted MR images of 4T1 tumor–bearing mice i.v. injected with IONP@PPy-PEG. (c) Photoacoustic images of mice before injection and at 24 h post injection with IONP@PPy–PEG. (d & e) In vivo photothermal therapy.
Fig 2 Conjugation of porphyrin to nanohybrid cerasomes for photodynamic diagnosis and therapy of cancer.
Fig 3 NIR light induced in vivo photodynamic therapy using UCNPs. (a) A scheme showing NIR–induced PDT using PEGylated UCNPs loaded with Ce6 via hydrophobic interactions. (b) The growth of 4T1 tumors on different groups of mice. (c) Schematicof experiment design in vivo. Tumors were hided below a pork slice (8 mm) during light treatment. (d) The growth of 4T1 tumors on different groups of mice after varioustreatments indicated.
Fig 4 Drug–induce protein self–assemblystrategy in the development ofnano–theranostic agent for combined therapy.
Fig 5 Magneto–thermally responsive nanoparticles for cancer treatment triggered by alternating magnetic field (AMF). (a) A schematic illustration to show the molecular design, selfassembly, and function of magneto–thermally responsive drug–encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles (Dox@SMNPs). (b) Treatment scheme and tumor growth data usingDox@SMNPs to treat a mouse tumor model. AMF was able to significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of those drug–loaded magnetic nanoparticles.
Fig 6 Constant external magnetic field enhanced tumor targeting using various magnetic drug carriers. (a) A scheme showing the fabrication of iron oxide nanoclusters (IONCs)functionalized with PEG and loaded with Ce6 for MF–enhanced photodynamic therapy. (b) Multifunctionaldrug–delivery system based on RBCs for MF–enhanced drug delivery and imaging–guided combination therapy of cancer.
Fig 7 Application of perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion in tumor hypoxia relieve for enhanced photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy under ultrasound stimulation. (a) A scheme showing the mechanism of US–triggered local oxygenation in the tumor using nano–PFC as the oxygen shuttle. (b) Representative immuno?uorescence images of tumor slices stained by the HypoxyprobeTM. (c) Tumor growth curves of different groups of mice after PDT and RT.
Fig 8 Scheme showing the synthesis of the thermosensitive bubble–generating NH4HCO3 liposomes and the mechanism of releasing encapsulated drugs in the tumor regionunder the localized hyperthermia.
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