Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (8): 896-902.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201810064

• ARTICLE • Previous Articles    

Single-Layer Organic Light-Emitting Devices with C60 and MoO3 Mixed Materials as Hole Injection Layer

Kai XUE,Minnan YAN,Fei PAN,Mengying TIAN,Xudong PAN,Hongmei ZHANG*()   

  • Received:2018-10-30 Accepted:2018-12-11 Published:2018-12-14
  • Contact: Hongmei ZHANG
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(61674081);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51333007)


Multilayer phosphorescent organic lighting-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with complicated device configurations have greatly increased the complexity of manufacturing and the fabrication cost. Therefore, there is strong incentive to develop simplified OLEDs, such as a single-layer device that has the structure of anode/hole injection layer (HIL)/emissive layer/electron injection layer/cathode. However, because of the absence of a carrier transport layer, the single-layer device suffers from severe charge injection difficulties and unbalanced carrier transport. Hence, the performances of single-layer devices reported so far have not been satisfactory. It has been proved that the modification of the electrode/organic interface could influence carrier injection to improve the device performance in multilayer PHOLEDs. Modification of the electrode/organic interface is more essential for achieving high-performance single-layer OLEDs. In this work, efficient green phosphorescent single-layer OLEDs based on the structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)/C60 (1.2 nm):MoO3 (0.4 nm)/1, 3, 5-tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)benzene (TPBi):fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium [Ir(ppy)3]/LiF (0.7 nm)/Al (120 nm) were fabricated. C60, MoO3, and C60:MoO3 were applied as the HILs, respectively, for comparison. The layer of TPBi played a dual role of host and electron-transporting material within the emission layer. Thus, the properties of the HILs play an important role in the adjustment of electron/hole injection to attain transport balance of the charge carriers in single-layer OLEDs with electron-transporting hosts. It is found that appropriate adjustment of the HIL is a key factor to achieve high-efficiency single-layer OLEDs. The large affinity of MoO3 (6.37 eV), inducing electron transfer from the highest occupied molecular orbital of C60 to MoO3, results in the formation of C60 cations and induces the decrease of the valence from Mo+6 to Mo+5; therefore, C60:MoO3 can adjust the hole injection properties well. Finally, a single-layer OLED with a maximum current efficiency of 35.88 cd∙A−1 was achieved. Compared with devices with MoO3 (28.99 cd∙A−1) or C60 (10.46 cd∙A−1) as HILs, the device performance was improved by 24% and 243%, respectively. Overall, a novel and effective method of using different mixed ratios of C60 and MoO3 as the HIL to realize effective charge carrier regulation is proposed, and it is of great significance for fabricating high-performance single-layer OLEDs.

Key words: Single-layer, Organic light-emitting diodes, Hole injection layer, Mixed materials, Balance of charge carriers