Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (9): 1911057.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB201911057

Special Issue: Precise Nanosynthesis

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The Precise Assembly of Nanoparticles

Kaixuan Li1,2, Tailong Zhang1,3, Huizeng Li1, Mingzhu Li1,2,*(), Yanlin Song1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Green Printing, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P. R. China
    2 School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
    3 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, P. R. China
  • Received:2020-02-18 Published:2020-03-02
  • Contact: Mingzhu Li,Yanlin Song;
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51573192);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21522308)


Nanoparticles (NPs) are ideal building blocks for constructing functional materials and devices due to their unique optical, electronic, magnetic, and mechanical properties. The precise assembly and patterning of NPs to obtain ordered structures are vital to explore the special properties of NPs. The specific configurations of large-scale NP assemblies from two-dimensional (2D) NP patterns to one-dimensional (1D) NP arrays on substrates are considered the ideal platform for many technological devices, such as solar cells, magnetic memory, switching devices, and sensing devices, due to their unique transport phenomena and the cooperative properties of NPs in assemblies. Regulation with high-precision control over the orientation and spatial arrangement of nanoarchitecture is required to achieve the coupling and collecting between NPs and thereby translate the properties of the individual NPs to the functions of the macroscopic materials. Therefore, the development of effective methods to build and implement ordered nanocomposites has been accelerated considerably over the last decade. However, due to the complex physics and thermodynamics of the NP assembly, precise control over the orientation and spatial distribution of nanoassemblies with a large area and high homogeneity remains a challenge. In order to tune the position and shape of the NPs into desired structures, a series of strategies and methods have been proposed and developed. These strategies include manipulation of interparticle physical interactions, modification of NP surface chemistry, effect of external fields, utilization of physically or chemically patterned templates, and application of an inkjet printing technique to achieve the desired level of spatial and orientational control over the assembly of NPs. In this paper, we summarized the typical morphologies and the precise control of the architectures prepared by the NPs self-assembly. The particle density, particle size, and interparticle distance of the NP assemblies were strongly controlled. Then the bottom-up strategies for positioning NPs into desired structures with high resolution and considerable throughput were shown. In addition, we discussed the unique functions and diverse applications of the ordered NP assemblies. Both the strong surface plasmon resonance coupling and directional electron transport between particles were studied, which was of highly significance in the development of many technological devices and of great scientific interest. Finally, we investigated the challenges and opportunities of the precise assembly of NPs, which could provide insight and guidance for the future development of functional nanoassembly devices.

Key words: Nanoparticle, Precise assembly, Desired structure, Coupling, Nanodevice