Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin. ›› 2021, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (8): 2010001.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB202010001

Special Issue: Two-Dimensional Photocatalytic Materials

• ARTICLE • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Phosphate- and Mn-Modified Mesoporous TiO2 for Efficient Catalytic Oxidation of Toluene in VUV-PCO System

Yajie Shu1, Shimin Liang1, Jiayong Xiao2, Zhiling Tu3, Haibao Huang1,*()   

  1. 1 School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2 Zhuhai Jinwan District Liangang Infrastructure Investment Co., Ltd., Zhuhai 519000, Guangdong Province, China
    3 Hunan Construction Engineering Group Co., Ltd., Zhuhai 519000, Guangdong Province, China
  • Received:2020-10-01 Accepted:2020-11-30 Published:2020-12-04
  • Contact: Haibao Huang
  • About author:Haibao Huang, Email:; Tel. & Fax: +86-20-39336475
  • Supported by:
    the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFC0204800)


Vacuum ultraviolet irradiation coupled with photocatalytic oxidation (VUV-PCO) is an efficient and promising method for eliminating pollutants at room temperature; it involves three processes: vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), and ozone catalytic oxidation. Herein, toluene was chosen as the representative volatile organic compound (VOC), which is one of the most important precursors to form fine particulate matter and photochemical smog, because of its high toxicity and extensive existence in industries. All experiments were performed in a fixed-bed continuous-flow reactor that contained units for VUV photolysis and PCO. Mesoporous P-Mn-TiO2 was prepared by one-step hydrolysis and used as a catalyst for the oxidation of gaseous toluene under VUV irradiation through the VUV-PCO process. The as-prepared P-Mn-TiO2 samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to determine the physicochemical properties of the catalysts and to determine the mechanisms of Mn doping and phosphoric acid modification and the effects of these processes on photocatalytic activity, ozone catalytic activity, and adsorption performance. The results indicated that the synergistic effect of phosphoric acid modification and Mn doping can improve the ozone catalytic activity and photocatalytic performance by increasing the number of oxygen active sites, completely eliminating the outlet ozone, and simultaneously promoting the efficient degradation of toluene. Moreover, doping TiO2 with Mn3+ significantly enhanced light harvesting, and numerous oxygen vacancies can be generated on the catalyst surface because of the presence of doped Mn3+ in the lattice, which adsorbs and transforms the oxygen species for toluene degradation. In addition, modification with an appropriate amount of phosphate groups can facilitate O2 and O3 adsorption on the TiO2 surface that can favor photo-induced charge carrier separation, thereby significantly improving the photocatalytic and ozone catalytic activities. The excellent catalytic performance of mesoporous P-Mn-TiO2 for toluene degradation and outlet ozone elimination was ascribed to the formation of highly reactive oxidizing species such as O(1D), O(3P), and ·OH via the catalytic decomposition of O3 adsorbed on the oxygen vacancy sites containing Mn and phosphate groups on the catalyst surface. In the VUV-PCO process, toluene was first destructed via VUV photolysis and oxidized by residual O3 generated from VUV photolysis and the active oxygen species formed in the presence of the catalyst. Finally, toluene and the generated intermediate products were oxidized and degraded to CO2 and H2O through VUV-PCO. In addition, the outlet ozone byproduct was simultaneously eliminated by the multifunctional catalyst.

Key words: Surface phosphation, Mn doping, VUV-PCO, Toluene, Ozone catalytic oxidation