CeO2-based catalysts are promising for use in various important chemical reactions involving CO2, such as the dry reforming of methane to produce synthesis gas and methanol. CeO2 has a superior ability to store and release oxygen, which can improve the catalytic performance by suppressing the formation of coke. Although the adsorption and activation behavior of CO2 on the CeO2 surface has been extensively investigated in recent years, the intermediate species formed from CO2 on ceria has not been clearly identified. The reactivity of the ceria surface to CO2 has been reported to be tuned by introducing CaO, which increases the number of basic sites for the ceria-based catalysts. However, the mechanism by which Ca2+ ions affect CO2 decomposition is still debated. In this study, the morphologies and electronic properties of stoichiometric CeO2(111), partially reduced CeO2-x(111) (0 < x < 0.5), and calcium-doped ceria model catalysts, as well as their interactions with CO2, were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy. Stoichiometric CeO2(111) and partially reduced CeO2-x(111) films were epitaxially grown on a Cu(111) surface. STM images show that the stoichiometric CeO2 film exhibits large, flat terraces that completely cover the Cu(111) surface. The reduced CeO2-x film also has a flat surface and an ordered structure, but dark spaces are observed on the film. Different Ca-doped ceria films were prepared by physical vapor deposition of metallic Ca on CeO2(111) at room temperature and subsequent annealing to 600 or 800 K in ultrahigh vacuum. The different preparation procedures produce samples with various surface components, oxidation states, and structures. Our results indicate that the deposition of metallic Ca on CeO2 at room temperature leads to a partial reduction of Ce from the +4 to the +3 state, accompanied by the oxidation of Ca to Ca2+. Large CaO nanofilms are observed on CeO2 upon annealing to 600 K. However, small CaO nanoislands appear near the step edges and more Ca2+ ions migrate into the subsurface of CeO2 upon annealing to 800 K. In addition, different surface-adsorbed species are identified after CO2 adsorption on ceria (CeO2 and reduced CeO2-x) and Ca-doped ceria films. CO2 adsorption on the stoichiometric CeO2 and partially reduced CeO2-x surfaces leads to the formation of surface carboxylate. Moreover, the surface carboxylate species is more easily formed on reduced CeO2-x with enhanced thermal stability than on stoichiometric CeO2. On Ca-doped ceria films, the presence of Ca2+ ions is observed to be beneficial for CO2 adsorption; further, the carbonate species is identified.
Fund: The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(U1732272);The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21473178);The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21403205);National Key Technologies R & D Program of China(2017YFA0403402);China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(BH2310000032)
Yan WANG,Xiong LI,Shanwei HU,Qian XU,Huanxin JU,Junfa ZHU. Morphologies and Electronic Structures of Calcium-Doped Ceria Model Catalysts and Their Interaction with CO2. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2018, 34(12): 1381-1389.