Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin. ›› 2021, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (4): 2007006.doi: 10.3866/PKU.WHXB202007006

Special Issue: Metal Halide Perovskite Optoelectronic Material and Device

• REVIEW • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Recent Advances in Tin-Based Perovskite Solar Cells

Haomiao Li1, Hua Dong1,2, Jingrui Li3, Zhaoxin Wu1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China
    2 Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
    3 Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, International Center for Dielectric Research, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China
  • Received:2020-07-02 Accepted:2020-08-03 Published:2020-08-07
  • Contact: Zhaoxin Wu
  • About author:Zhaoxin Wu, Email:


Since 2009, organic-inorganic halide perovskites have been widely studied in the field of optoelectric materials due to their unique optical and electrical properties. Pb-based halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), in particular, currently have a record efficiency of 25.2%, thus showing strong potential in commercialization. However, the market prospects of PSCs have been hampered by the toxicity of lead-based materials. Therefore the seeking of less toxic and environmentally friendly elements that can replace Pb is of great interest. Tin-based perovskites are the most promising choice at present due to its similar electronic configuration as Pb, and can even have more superior semiconductor properties. As a rising star of lead-free perovskite solar cells, tin-based PSCs have drawn much attention and made promising progress during the past few years. However, it is still challenging to obtain efficient and stable tin-based PSCs because of the low defects formation energy and the oxidation of bivalent tin. Among all Pb-free perovskite materials that show photovoltaic performance, formamidinium tin tri-iodide (FASnI3) based PSCs are the most promising because of the suitable band gap, low exciton bind energy, and high carrier mobility. The main drawbacks of tin-based perovskite material are its instability because of the easy oxidation of Sn2+ into Sn4+ and high dark current which arises from high p-type carrier concentration. The latter originates from the low formation energy of Sn vacancies. Many strategies have been developed to overcome these problems and promote the performance of tin-based PSCs. On one type of pursuit to avoid the oxidation of Sn2+, reduction additives (e.g., SnF2, pyrazine, hydrazine vapor, hydroxybenzene sulfonic acid or its salt, and π-conjugated polymer) and solvent-free processing have been introduced and shown to be effective up to a point. In another type, Cs or Br alloying and construction of low-dimensional structures in tin-based perovskite have also been shown to be promising. In this review, the optical and electrical properties of tin-based perovskite are systematically discussed. And then, the film fabrication methods and different device architectures of tin-based PSCs are summarized. Finally, the current challenges and a future outlook for tin-based PSCs are discussed.

Key words: Tin-based, Organic-inorganic perovskite, Solar cell, Film fabrication method, Device architecture